Huckleberry Finn ZusammenfaГџung

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As Huckleberry Finn opens, Huck is none too thrilled with his new life of cleanliness, manners, church, and school. This effort fails miserably, and Pap soon returns to his old ways.

Finally, outraged when the Widow Douglas warns him to stay away from her house, Pap kidnaps Huck and holds him in a cabin across the river from St.

Whenever Pap goes out, he locks Huck in the cabin, and when he returns home drunk, he beats the boy.

Tired of his confinement and fearing the beatings will worsen, Huck escapes from Pap by faking his own death, killing a pig and spreading its blood all over the cabin.

Jim has run away from Miss Watson after hearing her talk about selling him to a plantation down the river, where he would be treated horribly and separated from his wife and children.

While they camp out on the island, a great storm causes the Mississippi to flood. Huck and Jim spy a log raft and a house floating past the island.

They capture the raft and loot the house, finding in it the body of a man who has been shot. Although the island is blissful, Huck and Jim are forced to leave after Huck learns from a woman onshore that her husband has seen smoke coming from the island and believes that Jim is hiding out there.

Huck and Jim start downriver on the raft, intending to leave it at the mouth of the Ohio River and proceed up that river by steamboat to the free states, where slavery is prohibited.

Louis, and they have a close encounter with a gang of robbers on a wrecked steamboat. During a night of thick fog, Huck and Jim miss the mouth of the Ohio and encounter a group of men looking for escaped slaves.

Terrified of the disease, the men give Huck money and hurry away. Unable to backtrack to the mouth of the Ohio, Huck and Jim continue downriver.

The next night, a steamboat slams into their raft, and Huck and Jim are separated. Huck ends up in the home of the kindly Grangerfords, a family of Southern aristocrats locked in a bitter and silly feud with a neighboring clan, the Shepherdsons.

The elopement of a Grangerford daughter with a Shepherdson son leads to a gun battle in which many in the families are killed.

While Huck is caught up in the feud, Jim shows up with the repaired raft. A few days later, Huck and Jim rescue a pair of men who are being pursued by armed bandits.

The men, clearly con artists, claim to be a displaced English duke the duke and the long-lost heir to the French throne the dauphin. Coming into one town, they hear the story of a man, Peter Wilks, who has recently died and left much of his inheritance to his two brothers, who should be arriving from England any day.

Throughout the 20th century, and despite arguments that the protagonist and the tenor of the book are anti-racist , [2] [3] criticism of the book continued due to both its perceived use of racial stereotypes and its frequent use of the racial slur " nigger ".

The story begins in fictional St. Petersburg, Missouri based on the actual town of Hannibal, Missouri , on the shore of the Mississippi River "forty to fifty years ago" the novel having been published in Huckleberry "Huck" Finn the protagonist and first-person narrator and his friend, Thomas "Tom" Sawyer, have each come into a considerable sum of money as a result of their earlier adventures detailed in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer.

Huck explains how he is placed under the guardianship of the Widow Douglas, who, together with her stringent sister, Miss Watson, are attempting to "sivilize" him and teach him religion.

Finding civilized life confining, his spirits are raised somewhat when Tom Sawyer helps him to escape one night past Miss Watson's slave Jim , to meet up with Tom's gang of self-proclaimed "robbers".

Just as the gang's activities begin to bore Huck, he is suddenly interrupted by the reappearance of his shiftless father, "Pap", an abusive alcoholic.

Knowing that Pap would only spend the money on alcohol, Huck is successful in preventing Pap from acquiring his fortune; however, Pap kidnaps Huck and leaves town with him.

Pap forcibly moves Huck to his isolated cabin in the woods along the Illinois shoreline. Because of Pap's drunken violence and imprisonment of Huck inside the cabin, Huck, during one of his father's absences, elaborately fakes his own death, escapes from the cabin, and sets off downriver.

He settles comfortably, on Jackson's Island. Here, Huck reunites with Jim, Miss Watson's slave. Jim has also run away after he overheard Miss Watson planning to sell him "down the river" to presumably more brutal owners.

Jim plans to make his way to the town of Cairo in Illinois, a free state , so that he can later buy the rest of his enslaved family's freedom.

At first, Huck is conflicted about the sin and crime of supporting a runaway slave, but as the two talk in-depth and bond over their mutually held superstitions, Huck emotionally connects with Jim, who increasingly becomes Huck's close friend and guardian.

After heavy flooding on the river, the two find a raft which they keep as well as an entire house floating on the river Chapter 9: "The House of Death Floats By".

Entering the house to seek loot, Jim finds the naked body of a dead man lying on the floor, shot in the back. He prevents Huck from viewing the corpse.

To find out the latest news in town, Huck dresses as a girl and enters the house of Judith Loftus, a woman new to the area. Huck learns from her about the news of his own supposed murder; Pap was initially blamed, but since Jim ran away he is also a suspect and a reward for Jim's capture has initiated a manhunt.

Loftus becomes increasingly suspicious that Huck is a boy, finally proving it by a series of tests. Huck develops another story on the fly and explains his disguise as the only way to escape from an abusive foster family.

Once he is exposed, she nevertheless allows him to leave her home without commotion, not realizing that he is the allegedly murdered boy they have just been discussing.

Huck returns to Jim to tell him the news and that a search party is coming to Jackson's Island that very night. The two hastily load up the raft and depart.

After a while, Huck and Jim come across a grounded steamship. Searching it, they stumble upon two thieves discussing murdering a third, but they flee before being noticed.

They are later separated in a fog, making Jim intensely anxious, and when they reunite, Huck tricks Jim into thinking he dreamed the entire incident.

Jim is not deceived for long and is deeply hurt that his friend should have teased him so mercilessly. Huck becomes remorseful and apologizes to Jim, though his conscience troubles him about humbling himself to a black man.

Traveling onward, Huck and Jim's raft is struck by a passing steamship, again separating the two. Huck is given shelter on the Kentucky side of the river by the Grangerfords, an "aristocratic" family.

He befriends Buck Grangerford, a boy about his age, and learns that the Grangerfords are engaged in a year blood feud against another family, the Shepherdsons.

The Grangerfords and Shepherdsons go to the same church, which ironically preaches brotherly love. The vendetta finally comes to a head when Buck's older sister elopes with a member of the Shepherdson clan.

In the resulting conflict, all the Grangerford males from this branch of the family are shot and killed, including Buck, whose horrific murder Huck witnesses.

He is immensely relieved to be reunited with Jim, who has since recovered and repaired the raft. Near the Arkansas-Missouri-Tennessee border, Jim and Huck take two on-the-run grifters aboard the raft.

The younger man, who is about thirty, introduces himself as the long-lost son of an English duke the Duke of Bridgewater. The older one, about seventy, then trumps this outrageous claim by alleging that he himself is the Lost Dauphin , the son of Louis XVI and rightful King of France.

The "duke" and "king" soon become permanent passengers on Jim and Huck's raft, committing a series of confidence schemes upon unsuspecting locals all along their journey.

To divert public suspicion from Jim, they pretend he is a runaway slave who has been recaptured, but later paint him blue and call him the "Sick Arab" so that he can move about the raft without bindings.

On one occasion, the swindlers advertise a three-night engagement of a play called "The Royal Nonesuch". The play turns out to be only a couple of minutes' worth of an absurd, bawdy sham.

On the afternoon of the first performance, a drunk called Boggs is shot dead by a gentleman named Colonel Sherburn; a lynch mob forms to retaliate against Sherburn; and Sherburn, surrounded at his home, disperses the mob by making a defiant speech describing how true lynching should be done.

By the third night of "The Royal Nonesuch", the townspeople prepare for their revenge on the duke and king for their money-making scam, but the two cleverly skip town together with Huck and Jim just before the performance begins.

In the next town, the two swindlers then impersonate brothers of Peter Wilks, a recently deceased man of property. To match accounts of Wilks's brothers, the king attempts an English accent and the duke pretends to be a deaf-mute while starting to collect Wilks's inheritance.

Huck decides that Wilks's three orphaned nieces, who treat Huck with kindness, do not deserve to be cheated thus and so he tries to retrieve for them the stolen inheritance.

In a desperate moment, Huck is forced to hide the money in Wilks's coffin, which is abruptly buried the next morning.

The arrival of two new men who seem to be the real brothers throws everything into confusion, so that the townspeople decide to dig up the coffin in order to determine which are the true brothers, but, with everyone else distracted, Huck leaves for the raft, hoping to never see the duke and king again.

Suddenly, though, the two villains return, much to Huck's despair. When Huck is finally able to get away a second time, he finds to his horror that the swindlers have sold Jim away to a family that intends to return him to his proper owner for the reward.

Defying his conscience and accepting the negative religious consequences he expects for his actions—"All right, then, I'll go to hell! Huck learns that Jim is being held at the plantation of Silas and Sally Phelps.

The family's nephew, Tom, is expected for a visit at the same time as Huck's arrival, so Huck is mistaken for Tom and welcomed into their home.

He plays along, hoping to find Jim's location and free him; in a surprising plot twist , it is revealed that the expected nephew is, in fact, Tom Sawyer.

When Huck intercepts the real Tom Sawyer on the road and tells him everything, Tom decides to join Huck's scheme, pretending to be his own younger half-brother, Sid , while Huck continues pretending to be Tom.

In the meantime, Jim has told the family about the two grifters and the new plan for "The Royal Nonesuch", and so the townspeople capture the duke and king, who are then tarred and feathered and ridden out of town on a rail.

Rather than simply sneaking Jim out of the shed where he is being held, Tom develops an elaborate plan to free him, involving secret messages, a hidden tunnel, snakes in a shed, a rope ladder sent in Jim's food, and other elements from adventure books he has read, [6] including an anonymous note to the Phelps warning them of the whole scheme.

During the actual escape and resulting pursuit, Tom is shot in the leg, while Jim remains by his side, risking recapture rather than completing his escape alone.

Although a local doctor admires Jim's decency, he has Jim arrested in his sleep and returned to the Phelps. After this, events quickly resolve themselves.

Jim is revealed to be a free man: Miss Watson died two months earlier and freed Jim in her will, but Tom who already knew this chose not to reveal this information to Huck so that he could come up with an artful rescue plan for Jim.

Jim tells Huck that Huck's father Pap Finn has been dead for some time he was the dead man they found earlier in the floating house , and so Huck may now return safely to St.

Huck declares that he is quite glad to be done writing his story, and despite Sally's plans to adopt and civilize him, he intends to flee west to Indian Territory.

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn explores themes of race and identity. A complexity exists concerning Jim's character.

While some scholars point out that Jim is good-hearted and moral, and he is not unintelligent in contrast to several of the more negatively depicted white characters , others have criticized the novel as racist, citing the use of the word " nigger " and emphasizing the stereotypically "comic" treatment of Jim's lack of education, superstition and ignorance.

At the same time, readers should understand that this book was made during the mid 19th century during the Civil War so the term " nigger " was used quite often without punishment.

Throughout the story, Huck is in moral conflict with the received values of the society in which he lives, and while he is unable to consciously refute those values even in his thoughts, he makes a moral choice based on his own valuation of Jim's friendship and human worth, a decision in direct opposition to the things he has been taught.

Twain, in his lecture notes, proposes that "a sound heart is a surer guide than an ill-trained conscience" and goes on to describe the novel as " To highlight the hypocrisy required to condone slavery within an ostensibly moral system, Twain has Huck's father enslave his son, isolate him, and beat him.

When Huck escapes, he then immediately encounters Jim "illegally" doing the same thing. The treatments both of them receive are radically different, especially in an encounter with Mrs.

Judith Loftus who takes pity on who she presumes to be a runaway apprentice, Huck, yet boasts about her husband sending the hounds after a runaway slave, Jim.

Some scholars discuss Huck's own character, and the novel itself, in the context of its relation to African-American culture as a whole.

The original illustrations were done by E. Kemble , at the time a young artist working for Life magazine. Kemble was hand-picked by Twain, who admired his work.

Hearn suggests that Twain and Kemble had a similar skill, writing that:. Whatever he may have lacked in technical grace Kemble shared with the greatest illustrators the ability to give even the minor individual in a text his own distinct visual personality; just as Twain so deftly defined a full-rounded character in a few phrases, so too did Kemble depict with a few strokes of his pen that same entire personage.

As Kemble could afford only one model, most of his illustrations produced for the book were done by guesswork. When the novel was published, the illustrations were praised even as the novel was harshly criticized.

Kemble produced another set of illustrations for Harper's and the American Publishing Company in and after Twain lost the copyright.

Twain initially conceived of the work as a sequel to The Adventures of Tom Sawyer that would follow Huckleberry Finn through adulthood.

Beginning with a few pages he had removed from the earlier novel, Twain began work on a manuscript he originally titled Huckleberry Finn's Autobiography.

Twain worked on the manuscript off and on for the next several years, ultimately abandoning his original plan of following Huck's development into adulthood.

He appeared to have lost interest in the manuscript while it was in progress, and set it aside for several years. After making a trip down the Hudson River , Twain returned to his work on the novel.

Upon completion, the novel's title closely paralleled its predecessor's: Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Tom Sawyer's Comrade. Mark Twain composed the story in pen on notepaper between and Paul Needham, who supervised the authentication of the manuscript for Sotheby's books and manuscripts department in New York in , stated, "What you see is [Clemens'] attempt to move away from pure literary writing to dialect writing".

For example, Twain revised the opening line of Huck Finn three times. He initially wrote, "You will not know about me", which he changed to, "You do not know about me", before settling on the final version, "You don't know about me, without you have read a book by the name of 'The Adventures of Tom Sawyer'; but that ain't no matter.

A later version was the first typewritten manuscript delivered to a printer. Demand for the book spread outside of the United States.

Thirty thousand copies of the book had been printed before the obscenity was discovered. A new plate was made to correct the illustration and repair the existing copies.

Twain did so. Later it was believed that half of the pages had been misplaced by the printer. In , the missing first half turned up in a steamer trunk owned by descendants of Gluck's.

The library successfully claimed possession and, in , opened the Mark Twain Room to showcase the treasure. In relation to the literary climate at the time of the book's publication in , Henry Nash Smith describes the importance of Mark Twain's already established reputation as a "professional humorist", having already published over a dozen other works.

Smith suggests that while the "dismantling of the decadent Romanticism of the later nineteenth century was a necessary operation," Adventures of Huckleberry Finn illustrated "previously inaccessible resources of imaginative power, but also made vernacular language, with its new sources of pleasure and new energy, available for American prose and poetry in the twentieth century.

While it was clear that the publication of Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was controversial from the outset, Norman Mailer , writing in The New York Times in , concluded that Twain's novel was not initially "too unpleasantly regarded.

Eliot and Ernest Hemingway 's encomiums 50 years later," reviews that would remain longstanding in the American consciousness.

Alberti suggests that the academic establishment responded to the book's challenges both dismissively and with confusion. Upon issue of the American edition in several libraries banned it from their shelves.

One incident was recounted in the newspaper the Boston Transcript :. The Concord Mass. Public Library committee has decided to exclude Mark Twain's latest book from the library.

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Er wurde am Februar in den Vereinigten Staaten veröffentlicht. Erzähler ist Huck Finn selbst. Mark Twain simuliert die Perspektive und die Sprache eines Jungen, der seiner Zeit und seiner Umwelt verhaftet ist, sie aber auch in Frage stellt.

Das Buch liefert eine detailreiche Beschreibung der Menschen und Orte an den Ufern des Mississippi und gibt ernüchternde und bissige Einblicke in die fest verwurzelten Verhaltensweisen dieser Zeit, insbesondere den Rassismus und die Sklaverei.

Mark Twain übernimmt damit gewollt eine zu der Zeit gebräuchliche Anrede für Dunkelhäutige, so wie er die handelnden Figuren auch in unterschiedlichen regionalen und subkulturellen Dialekten sprechen lässt.

Dieser Ansatz wird heute kritisch diskutiert. Der Roman gilt in der landläufigen Amerikanistik als eine der klassischen Verkörperungen des amerikanischen Traumes , des Strebens nach Glück , wie es in der Amerikanischen Unabhängigkeitserklärung proklamiert wurde.

Petersburg, die dem Ort Hannibal nachempfunden ist, wo Mark Twain aufwuchs. Er spielt irgendwann zwischen als das erste Dampfschiff den Mississippi befuhr und Huck freut sich über ihre Bemühungen, findet aber zivilisiertes Leben zu beschränkt.

Sie treffen sich in der selbsternannten Bande Tom Sawyers, die sich — nach deutlichem literarischen Vorbild — vornimmt, abenteuerliche Aktionen und Verbrechen zu begehen.

Das Leben von Huck wird allerdings durch das plötzliche Auftauchen seines Vaters massiv verändert. Hucks Vater hatte erfahren, dass sein Sohn zu Geld gekommen war, und will es ihm abknöpfen.

Huck wehrt sich anfangs erfolgreich dagegen, kann aber nicht verhindern, dass er von seinem Vater gekidnappt und gezwungen wird, mit ihm in einer Hütte auf einer einsamen Insel im Fluss zu leben.

Dort hat er seinen Sohn ständig im Auge oder sperrt ihn ein, wenn er ihn für längere Zeit allein zurücklässt. Raffiniert schafft er es auch, seine eigene Ermordung vorzutäuschen, um dem Vater zu suggerieren, dass weitere Nachstellungen sinnlos wären.

Huck begibt sich mit einem Boot auf den Mississippi und fährt einer ungewissen Zukunft entgegen. Huck lebt zunächst durchaus glücklich auf einer verwilderten unbewohnten Insel namens Jackson's Island im Mississippi.

Unerwartet trifft er auf den Sklaven Jim, der seiner Besitzerin Miss Watson weggelaufen ist, weil sie ihn für Dollar nach New Orleans verkaufen will, wo das Leben für Sklaven noch härter ist.

Damit beginnt eine lange gemeinsame Flucht. Jim versucht, einen Weg zur Stadt Cairo in Illinois zu finden, um von dort nach Ohio zu kommen, einem freien Staat, um seiner Familie die Freiheit zu erkaufen.

Zunächst überlegt Huck, ob er Jims Flucht melden soll. Huck erfährt dadurch viel über Jims Vergangenheit und bekommt zunehmend Verständnis für seine Situation.

Wenn sie können, schnorren sie rund um den Fluss auf der Suche nach Nahrung, Holz und anderem. Rather than simply sneaking Jim out of the shed where he is being held, Tom develops an elaborate plan to free him, involving secret messages, a hidden tunnel, snakes in a shed, a rope ladder sent in Jim's food, and other elements from adventure books he has read, [6] including an anonymous note to the Phelps warning them of the whole scheme.

During the actual escape and resulting pursuit, Tom is shot in the leg, while Jim remains by his side, risking recapture rather than completing his escape alone.

Although a local doctor admires Jim's decency, he has Jim arrested in his sleep and returned to the Phelps. After this, events quickly resolve themselves.

Jim is revealed to be a free man: Miss Watson died two months earlier and freed Jim in her will, but Tom who already knew this chose not to reveal this information to Huck so that he could come up with an artful rescue plan for Jim.

Jim tells Huck that Huck's father Pap Finn has been dead for some time he was the dead man they found earlier in the floating house , and so Huck may now return safely to St.

Huck declares that he is quite glad to be done writing his story, and despite Sally's plans to adopt and civilize him, he intends to flee west to Indian Territory.

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn explores themes of race and identity. A complexity exists concerning Jim's character. While some scholars point out that Jim is good-hearted and moral, and he is not unintelligent in contrast to several of the more negatively depicted white characters , others have criticized the novel as racist, citing the use of the word " nigger " and emphasizing the stereotypically "comic" treatment of Jim's lack of education, superstition and ignorance.

At the same time, readers should understand that this book was made during the mid 19th century during the Civil War so the term " nigger " was used quite often without punishment.

Throughout the story, Huck is in moral conflict with the received values of the society in which he lives, and while he is unable to consciously refute those values even in his thoughts, he makes a moral choice based on his own valuation of Jim's friendship and human worth, a decision in direct opposition to the things he has been taught.

Twain, in his lecture notes, proposes that "a sound heart is a surer guide than an ill-trained conscience" and goes on to describe the novel as " To highlight the hypocrisy required to condone slavery within an ostensibly moral system, Twain has Huck's father enslave his son, isolate him, and beat him.

When Huck escapes, he then immediately encounters Jim "illegally" doing the same thing. The treatments both of them receive are radically different, especially in an encounter with Mrs.

Judith Loftus who takes pity on who she presumes to be a runaway apprentice, Huck, yet boasts about her husband sending the hounds after a runaway slave, Jim.

Some scholars discuss Huck's own character, and the novel itself, in the context of its relation to African-American culture as a whole.

The original illustrations were done by E. Kemble , at the time a young artist working for Life magazine. Kemble was hand-picked by Twain, who admired his work.

Hearn suggests that Twain and Kemble had a similar skill, writing that:. Whatever he may have lacked in technical grace Kemble shared with the greatest illustrators the ability to give even the minor individual in a text his own distinct visual personality; just as Twain so deftly defined a full-rounded character in a few phrases, so too did Kemble depict with a few strokes of his pen that same entire personage.

As Kemble could afford only one model, most of his illustrations produced for the book were done by guesswork. When the novel was published, the illustrations were praised even as the novel was harshly criticized.

Kemble produced another set of illustrations for Harper's and the American Publishing Company in and after Twain lost the copyright.

Twain initially conceived of the work as a sequel to The Adventures of Tom Sawyer that would follow Huckleberry Finn through adulthood.

Beginning with a few pages he had removed from the earlier novel, Twain began work on a manuscript he originally titled Huckleberry Finn's Autobiography.

Twain worked on the manuscript off and on for the next several years, ultimately abandoning his original plan of following Huck's development into adulthood.

He appeared to have lost interest in the manuscript while it was in progress, and set it aside for several years. After making a trip down the Hudson River , Twain returned to his work on the novel.

Upon completion, the novel's title closely paralleled its predecessor's: Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Tom Sawyer's Comrade.

Mark Twain composed the story in pen on notepaper between and Paul Needham, who supervised the authentication of the manuscript for Sotheby's books and manuscripts department in New York in , stated, "What you see is [Clemens'] attempt to move away from pure literary writing to dialect writing".

For example, Twain revised the opening line of Huck Finn three times. He initially wrote, "You will not know about me", which he changed to, "You do not know about me", before settling on the final version, "You don't know about me, without you have read a book by the name of 'The Adventures of Tom Sawyer'; but that ain't no matter.

A later version was the first typewritten manuscript delivered to a printer. Demand for the book spread outside of the United States.

Thirty thousand copies of the book had been printed before the obscenity was discovered. A new plate was made to correct the illustration and repair the existing copies.

Twain did so. Later it was believed that half of the pages had been misplaced by the printer. In , the missing first half turned up in a steamer trunk owned by descendants of Gluck's.

The library successfully claimed possession and, in , opened the Mark Twain Room to showcase the treasure. In relation to the literary climate at the time of the book's publication in , Henry Nash Smith describes the importance of Mark Twain's already established reputation as a "professional humorist", having already published over a dozen other works.

Smith suggests that while the "dismantling of the decadent Romanticism of the later nineteenth century was a necessary operation," Adventures of Huckleberry Finn illustrated "previously inaccessible resources of imaginative power, but also made vernacular language, with its new sources of pleasure and new energy, available for American prose and poetry in the twentieth century.

While it was clear that the publication of Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was controversial from the outset, Norman Mailer , writing in The New York Times in , concluded that Twain's novel was not initially "too unpleasantly regarded.

Eliot and Ernest Hemingway 's encomiums 50 years later," reviews that would remain longstanding in the American consciousness.

Alberti suggests that the academic establishment responded to the book's challenges both dismissively and with confusion. Upon issue of the American edition in several libraries banned it from their shelves.

One incident was recounted in the newspaper the Boston Transcript :. The Concord Mass. Public Library committee has decided to exclude Mark Twain's latest book from the library.

One member of the committee says that, while he does not wish to call it immoral, he thinks it contains but little humor, and that of a very coarse type.

He regards it as the veriest trash. The library and the other members of the committee entertain similar views, characterizing it as rough, coarse, and inelegant, dealing with a series of experiences not elevating, the whole book being more suited to the slums than to intelligent, respectable people.

Writer Louisa May Alcott criticized the book's publication as well, saying that if Twain "[could not] think of something better to tell our pure-minded lads and lasses he had best stop writing for them".

Twain later remarked to his editor, "Apparently, the Concord library has condemned Huck as 'trash and only suitable for the slums.

In , New York's Brooklyn Public Library also banned the book due to "bad word choice" and Huck's having "not only itched but scratched" within the novel, which was considered obscene.

When asked by a Brooklyn librarian about the situation, Twain sardonically replied:. I am greatly troubled by what you say.

The mind that becomes soiled in youth can never again be washed clean. None can do that and ever draw a clean sweet breath again on this side of the grave.

Many subsequent critics, Ernest Hemingway among them, have deprecated the final chapters, claiming the book "devolves into little more than minstrel-show satire and broad comedy" after Jim is detained.

That is the real end. The rest is just cheating. Yet it is precisely this part which gives the novel its significance.

In his introduction to The Annotated Huckleberry Finn , Michael Patrick Hearn writes that Twain "could be uninhibitedly vulgar", and quotes critic William Dean Howells , a Twain contemporary, who wrote that the author's "humor was not for most women".

However, Hearn continues by explaining that "the reticent Howells found nothing in the proofs of Huckleberry Finn so offensive that it needed to be struck out".

Much of modern scholarship of Huckleberry Finn has focused on its treatment of race. Many Twain scholars have argued that the book, by humanizing Jim and exposing the fallacies of the racist assumptions of slavery, is an attack on racism.

In one instance, the controversy caused a drastically altered interpretation of the text: in , CBS tried to avoid controversial material in a televised version of the book, by deleting all mention of slavery and omitting the character of Jim entirely.

Because of this controversy over whether Huckleberry Finn is racist or anti-racist, and because the word " nigger " is frequently used in the novel a commonly used word in Twain's time which has since become vulgar and taboo , many have questioned the appropriateness of teaching the book in the U.

There have been several more recent cases involving protests for the banning of the novel. Huckleberry " Huck " Finn is a fictional character created by Mark Twain who first appeared in the book The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and is the protagonist and narrator of its sequel, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn He is 12 or 13 years old during the former and a year older "thirteen or fourteen or along there", Chapter 17 at the time of the latter.

Huckleberry "Huck" Finn is the son of the town's vagrant drunkard, "Pap" Finn. Sleeping on doorsteps when the weather is fair, in empty hogsheads during storms, and living off of what he receives from others, Huck lives the life of a destitute vagabond.

The author metaphorically names him "the juvenile pariah of the village" and describes Huck as "idle, and lawless, and vulgar, and bad", qualities for which he was admired by all the other children in the village, although their mothers "cordially hated and dreaded" him.

Huck is an archetypal innocent, able to discover the "right" thing to do despite the prevailing theology and prejudiced mentality of the South of that era.

The best example of this is his decision to help Jim escape slavery , even though he believes he will go to Hell for it see Christian views on slavery.

His appearance is described in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. He wears the clothes of full-grown men which he probably received as charity, and as Twain describes him, "he was fluttering with rags.

Even Tom Sawyer, the St. Petersburg hamlet boys' leader sees him as "the banished Romantic". Tom's Aunt Polly calls Huck a "poor motherless thing.

Huck has a carefree life free from societal norms or rules, stealing watermelons and chickens and "borrowing stealing " boats and cigars.

Due to his unconventional childhood, Huck has received almost no education. At the end of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer , Huck is adopted by the Widow Douglas, who sends him to school in return for his saving her life.

In the course of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn he learns enough to be literate and even reads books for entertainment.

His knowledge of history as related to Jim is wildly inaccurate, but it is not specified if he is being wrong on purpose as a joke on Jim.

Huck's father takes him from her, but Huck manages to fake his own death and escape to Jackson's Island, where he coincidentally meets up with Jim, a slave who was owned by the Widow Douglas' sister, Miss Watson.

Jim is running away because he overheard Miss Watson planning to "sell him South" for eight hundred dollars. Jim wants to escape to Cairo, Illinois , where he can find work to eventually buy his family's freedom.

Huck and Jim take a raft down the Mississippi River , planning to head north on the Ohio River , in hopes of finding freedom from slavery for Jim and freedom from Pap for Huck.

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