Gods Egypt

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Nachdem Set, der Gott der Dunkelheit, den Lichtgott Horus gestürzt und sich selbst des Throns bemächtigt hat, droht das ägyptische Reich im Chaos zu versinken. Nur wenige Rebellen leisten noch Widerstand. Einer von ihnen ist Bek, ein gewöhnlicher. Gods of Egypt ist ein Fantasyfilm des Regisseurs Alex Proyas aus dem Jahr mit Gerard Butler, Nikolaj Coster-Waldau und Brenton Thwaites in den. Gods of Egypt [dt./OV]. ()IMDb 5,42 Std. 7 MinX-Ray Set, der Gott der Wüste, hat sich an die Spitze des ägyptischen Königreichs gesetzt und. Gods Of Egypt ein Film von Alex Proyas mit Nikolaj Coster-Waldau, Gerard Butler​. Inhaltsangabe: Nachdem sich Set (Gerard Butler), der Gott der Dunkelheit. 24 Userkritiken zum Film Gods Of Egypt von Alex Proyas mit Nikolaj Coster-​Waldau, Gerard Butler, Brenton Thwaites - expertisepunt.be

Gods Egypt

Gods of Egypt ist ein Fantasyfilm des Regisseurs Alex Proyas aus dem Jahr mit Gerard Butler, Nikolaj Coster-Waldau und Brenton Thwaites in den. Komplette Handlung und Informationen zu Gods of Egypt. Handlung von God of Egypt Es herrschen dunkle Zeiten im Alten Ägypten. Nachdem Wüstengott Set . Über Filme auf DVD bei Thalia ✓»Gods Of Egypt«und weitere DVD Filme jetzt online bestellen! Komplette Handlung und Informationen zu Gods of Egypt. Handlung von God of Egypt Es herrschen dunkle Zeiten im Alten Ägypten. Nachdem Wüstengott Set . Gods of Egypt: Sendetermine · Streams · DVDs · Cast & Crew. Über Filme auf DVD bei Thalia ✓»Gods Of Egypt«und weitere DVD Filme jetzt online bestellen! "Gods of Egypt" von ist eine actionbepackte CGI-Lawine für Freunde der gepflegten Reizüberflutung. Dürfen Fans des Erstlings auf "Gods.

It is more of a picture of how gods would look like and with a taste of magic and dream. The fact that gods are portrayed twice the size of humans should be the first sign of this style.

The color palette chosen for the movie is beautiful focusing on yellow of gold and brown of sand. This coupled with the vibrant and warm colors of the environments and set pieces create a delightful picture to watch.

The story is interesting to follow as it unfolds right from the beginning of the movie with a clash between two brothers. As it is common in these kind of stories, the bad and the good characters are easy to see from the beginning.

The CGI is mostly good and not as bad as it is called out by some people. There were times they felt a bit cheap considering the big budget of million dollars of the movie.

Brenton's character really added a much appreciated tone of fun to the movie and made me feel that familiar sense of feeling of similar movies like Prince of Persia Gerard Butler fulfills his familiar role of war leader very well as expected, of course he is no stranger to these roles.

Nikolaj Coaster-Waldau does a great job portraying his character Horus as well. Although it would be nicer to see a bit more of his character's background.

Overall this movie offers a fun, humorous, entertaining story in a fantasy world filled with magical powers of gods and hatred and love.

This movie is bold, vibrant and fast, it's a shame some people couldn't see beyond the distinct choice of style, which I personally found interesting.

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Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions. Rate This. Mortal hero Bek teams with the god Horus in an alliance against Set, the merciless god of darkness, who has usurped Egypt's throne, plunging the once peaceful and prosperous empire into chaos and conflict.

Director: Alex Proyas. Writers: Matt Sazama , Burk Sharpless. Added to Watchlist. From metacritic. Comic-Con Home Top Moments.

Major Comic-Con Home News. MyMovies: Summer Term May watch again. Fantasy Seen. Share this Rating Title: Gods of Egypt 5.

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Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Brenton Thwaites Bek John Samaha Vendor Courtney Eaton Zaya Nikolaj Coster-Waldau Horus Paula Arundell First Young Maidservant Emily Wheaton Second Younger Maidservant Elodie Yung Hathor Rachael Blake Isis Bryan Brown Osiris Michael-Anthony Taylor Priest Emma Booth Nephthys Felix Williamson He usually has a long snout and long ears that are squared at the tips.

In his fully animal form, he has a thin doglike body and a straight tail with a tuft on the end. Many scholars now believe that no such animal ever existed and that the Seth animal is some sort of mythical composite.

Ptah was the head of a triad of gods worshipped at Memphis. The 4th-dynasty architect Imhotep was deified after his death as a son of Ptah. One of several deities associated with the sun, the god Re was usually represented with a human body and the head of a hawk.

It was believed that he sailed across the sky in a boat each day and then made a passage through the underworld each night, during which he would have to defeat the snake god Apopis in order to rise again.

Over time, Re came to be syncretized with other sun deities, especially Amon. Hathor embodied motherhood and fertility, and it was believed that she protected women in childbirth.

In some traditions, she would welcome the setting sun every night; living people hoped to be welcomed into the afterlife in the same way.

Anubis was concerned with funerary practices and the care of the dead. He was usually represented as a jackal or as a man with the head of a jackal.

The association of jackals with death and funerals likely arose because Egyptians would have observed jackals scavenging around cemeteries.

In the Old Kingdom c. According to the Osiris myth, Anubis embalmed and wrapped the body of the murdered king, becoming the patron god for embalmers.

Thoth , the god of writing and wisdom, could be depicted in the form of a baboon or a sacred ibis or as a man with the head of an ibis.

He was believed to have invented language and the hieroglyphic script and to serve as a scribe and adviser for the gods.

As the god of wisdom, Thoth was said to possess knowledge of magic and secrets unavailable to the other gods. In underworld scenes showing the judgment undergone by the deceased after their deaths, Thoth is depicted as weighing the hearts of the deceased and reporting the verdict to Osiris, the god of the dead.

In her earliest forms, the cat goddess Bastet was represented as a woman with the head of a lion or a wild cat. She took the less ferocious form of a domestic cat in the first millennium BCE.

In later periods she was often represented as a regal-looking seated cat, sometimes wearing rings in her ears or nose.

In the Ptolemaic period she came to be associated with the Greek goddess Artemis , the divine hunter and goddess of the moon. Before rising to national importance in the New Kingdom c.

His animal symbols were the ram and the goose. After the rulers of Thebes rebelled against a dynasty of foreign rulers known as the Hyksos and reestablished native Egyptian rule throughout Egypt, Amon received credit for their victory.

In a form merged with the sun god Re, he became the most powerful deity in Egypt, a position he retained for most of the New Kingdom.

Gods Egypt

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Gods of Egypt (2016) - Bow Before Me or Die Scene (1/11) - Movieclips Filmtyp Spielfilm. Neben ein paar hübschen Frauen vielleicht. Produktions-Format. Was widerstrebt ist die Darstellung der anderen Götter. Dort Wie Werde Ich Hundesitter der Zuschauer ebenfalls in eine fremde, visuell umwerfende Welt entführt, aber diese ist stets in sich selbst stimmig. Mir gefällt auch der Gedanke der Sterblichkeit der Nikolaj Coster-Waldau. Peter Menzies Jr. Set besucht seinen Vater Ra auf dessen Sonnenschiff Beste Spielothek in Bevers finden tötet ihn in einem Zweikampf mit dessen eigenem Sonnenspeer. User folgen Lies die 6 Kritiken. Um den Gott für sich zu gewinnen, stiehlt er kurzerhand seine Augen aus Sets Katakomben und bringt sie ihm zurück. Peter Menzies Jr. Filmtyp Spielfilm. Datenschutzbestimmungen anzeigen. Kenneth Ransom. Nichts in "Gods of Egypt" mag so richtig Beste Spielothek in Neunaigen finden. Manche haben wirklich garkeinen Anspruch.

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Dieses baut für ihn imposante Gebäude, u. Reines Popcornkino mit schönen Bildern. April in den deutschen Kinos. Leider ist es letztendlich ein Kampf zwischen Set und Horus. Die Besten Fantasyfilme. Farb-Format Farbe. Ich hatte mich definitiv darauf gefreut. Sogar die Animationen wirken trotz des Millionenbudgets stellenweise zweitklassig - gemessen an dem, was inzwischen Standard ist. Horus kann Set besiegen, Beste Spielothek in Ludwigslust finden er vermeintlich durch das eine noch fehlende Auge noch nicht seine kompletten Kräfte zurückerlangt hat. The gods' actions in the present are described and praised in hymns and funerary texts. Photo Gallery. He is often Kinderspiele FГјr Tablet Kostenlos as an animal or as a human with the head of an animal. They fight vicious battles with the forces of chaos at the start of Beste Spielothek in Pernhofen finden. Namespaces Article Talk. Ithaca, N. He was associated Parship SeriГ¶s good times and entertainment, Mycard2go Aufladen Tankstelle was also considered a guardian god of childbirth. Even Alexander the Great thought it worthwhile consulting the Kostenlose Spiele Shooter of Amun. Maybe one day if I get to make further chapters I will reveal the context of the when and where of the story. Much of what they experienced in the world around them was unknowable and frightening.

Protector of the Dead Anubis is shown as a jackal-headed man, or as a jackal. His father was Seth and his mother Nephythys.

His cult center was Cynopolis, now known as El Kes. He was closely associated with mummification and as protector of the dead. It was Anubis who conducted the deceased to the hall of judgment.

Originally an avenging lioness deity, she evolved into a goddess of pleasure. Her cult center was in the town of Bubastis in the Western delta.

Many cats lived at her temple and were mummified when they died. An immense cemetery of mummified cats has been discovered in the area. Unlike the other gods, Bes is represented full face rather than in profile, as a grotesque, bandy-legged, dwarf with his tongue sticking out.

He was associated with good times and entertainment, but was also considered a guardian god of childbirth.

Bes chased away demons of the night and guarded people from dangerous animals. Hapi was not the god of the river Nile but of its inundation.

He is represented as a pot-bellied man with breasts and a headdress made of aquatic plants. He was thought to live in the caves of the first cataract, and his cult center was at Aswan.

Hathor was the daughter of Ra and the patron goddess of women, love, beauty, pleasure, and music. In this last manifestation, she holds the solar disc between her horns.

There was a dark side to Hathor. It was believed that Ra sent her to punish the human race for its wickedness, but Hathor wreaked such bloody havoc on earth that Ra was horrified and determined to bring her back.

He tricked her by preparing vast quantities of beer mixed with mandrake and the blood of the slain. Murdering mankind was thirsty work, and when Hathor drank the beer she became so intoxicated that she could not continue her slaughter.

Each year the goddess Hathor visited her husband the god Horus at Edfu temple to celebrate the feast of the Divine Union. Horus was the son of Osiris and Isis and the enemy of the wicked God Seth.

He is depicted as a hawk or as a man with the head of a hawk. He was the god of the sky and the divine protector of kings.

Horus was worshipped throughout Egypt and was particularly associated with Edfu, the site of the ancient city of Mesen, where his temple can still be seen.

There are many stories of his wars against his uncle Seth, who murdered his father and usurped the throne. Eventually Horus defeated Seth and became the king of Egypt.

A very important figure in the ancient world, Isis was the wife of Osiris and mother of Horus. She was associated with funeral rites and said to have made the first mummy from the dismembered parts of Osiris.

As the enchantress who resurrected Osiris and gave birth to Horus, she was also the giver of life, a healer and protector of kings.

Isis is represented with a throne on her head and sometimes shown breastfeeding the infant Horus.

Her most famous temple is at Philae though her cult spread throughout the Medi-terranean world and, during the Roman period, extended as far as northern Europe.

There was even a temple dedicated to her in London. Also known as, Khepri, Khepra, Khepera, Khepre was a creator god depicted as a Scarab beetle or as a man with a scarab for a head.

The Egyptians observed young scarab beetles emerging spontaneously from balls of dung and associated them with the process of creation. It was thought that Khepre rolled the sun across the sky in the same way a dung beetle rolls balls of dung across the ground.

Khnum, was depicted as a ram-headed man. He was a god of the cataracts, a potter, and a creator god who guarded the source of the Nile,. His sanctuary was on Elephantine Island but his best-preserved temple is at Esna.

He was a moon god depicted as a man with a falcon-head wearing a crescent moon headdress surmounted by the full lunar disc.

Like Thoth, who was also a lunar deity, he is sometimes represented as a baboon. Khonsu was believed to have the ability to drive out evil spirits.

Rameses II sent a statue of Khonsu to a friendly Syrian king in order to cure his daughter of an illness. She was depicted as a seated woman wearing an ostrich feather, or sometimes just as the feather itself.

Her power regulated the seasons and the movement of the stars. Ammut, devourer of the dead, ate those who failed her test.

Montu was a warrior god who rose to become the state god during the 11th dynasty. During the Twelfth Dynasty Montu was displaced by the rise of Amun, but he took on the true attributes of a war god when warrior kings such as Thutmose III and Rameses II identified themselves with him.

Mut formed part of the Theban Triad. She was one of the daughters of Ra, the wife of Amun, and mother of Khonsu. She was the Vulture goddess and is often depicted as a woman with a long, brightly colored dress and a vulture headdress surmounted by the double crown.

In her more aggressive aspect she is shown as a lion-headed goddess. Like Isis and Hathor, Mut played the role of divine mother to the king.

Her amulets, which depict her as a seated woman suckling a child, are sometime confused with those of Isis. Together with Isis she was a protector of the dead, and they are often shown together on coffin cases, with winged arms.

She seems to have had no temple or cult center of her own. Osiris was originally a vegetation god linked with the growth of crops. He was the mythological first king of Egypt and one of the most important of the gods.

It was thought that he brought civilization to the race of mankind. He was murdered by his brother Seth, brought back to life by his wife Isis, and went on to become the ruler of the underworld and judge of the dead.

He is usually depicted as a mummy holding the crook and flail of kingship. On his head he wears the white crown of Upper Egypt flanked by two plumes of feathers.

Sometimes he is shown with the horns of a ram. His skin is depicted as blue, the color of the dead; black, the color of the fertile earth; or green, representing resurrection.

Each year, during his festival, there was a procession and a reenactment of his story in the form of a mystery play.

Ptah was a creator god, said to have made the world from the thoughts in his heart and his words. He was depicted as a mummy with his hands protruding from the wrappings and holding a staff.

His head was shaven and he wore a scull cap. Ptah was associated with craftsmen, and the High Priest of his temple at Memphis held the title Great Leader of Craftsmen.

Also known as Re The supreme sun god was represented as a man with the head of a hawk, crowned with a solar disk and the sacred serpent.

However, in the underworld through which he passes each night, he is depicted as ram-headed. Each day Ra traveled across the sky in the form of the sun, riding in his solar boat, and each night he journeyed through the underworld where he defeated the allies of chaos.

They fight vicious battles with the forces of chaos at the start of creation. Ra and Apep, battling each other each night, continue this struggle into the present.

The clearest instance where a god dies is the myth of Osiris's murder , in which that god is resurrected as ruler of the Duat. In the process he comes into contact with the rejuvenating water of Nun , the primordial chaos.

Funerary texts that depict Ra's journey through the Duat also show the corpses of gods who are enlivened along with him. Instead of being changelessly immortal, the gods periodically died and were reborn by repeating the events of creation, thus renewing the whole world.

Some poorly understood Egyptian texts even suggest that this calamity is destined to happen—that the creator god will one day dissolve the order of the world, leaving only himself and Osiris amid the primordial chaos.

Gods were linked to specific regions of the universe. In Egyptian tradition, the world includes the earth, the sky, and the Duat.

Surrounding them is the dark formlessness that existed before creation. Most events of mythology, set in a time before the gods' withdrawal from the human realm, take place in an earthly setting.

The deities there sometimes interact with those in the sky. The Duat, in contrast, is treated as a remote and inaccessible place, and the gods who dwell there have difficulties in communicating with those in the world of the living.

It too is inhabited by deities, some hostile and some beneficial to the other gods and their orderly world. In the time after myth, most gods were said to be either in the sky or invisibly present within the world.

Temples were their main means of contact with humanity. Each day, it was believed, the gods moved from the divine realm to their temples, their homes in the human world.

There they inhabited the cult images , the statues that depicted deities and allowed humans to interact with them in temple rituals.

This movement between realms was sometimes described as a journey between the sky and the earth. As temples were the focal points of Egyptian cities, the god in a city's main temple was the patron deity for the city and the surrounding region.

They could establish themselves in new cities, or their range of influence could contract. Therefore, a given deity's main cult center in historical times is not necessarily his or her place of origin.

When kings from Thebes took control of the country at start of the Middle Kingdom c. In Egyptian belief, names express the fundamental nature of the things to which they refer.

In keeping with this belief, the names of deities often relate to their roles or origins. The name of the predatory goddess Sekhmet means "powerful one", the name of the mysterious god Amun means "hidden one", and the name of Nekhbet , who was worshipped in the city of Nekheb , means "she of Nekheb".

Many other names have no certain meaning, even when the gods who bear them are closely tied to a single role. The names of the sky goddess Nut and the earth god Geb do not resemble the Egyptian terms for sky and earth.

The Egyptians also devised false etymologies giving more meanings to divine names. The gods were believed to have many names.

Among them were secret names that conveyed their true natures more profoundly than others. To know the true name of a deity was to have power over it.

The importance of names is demonstrated by a myth in which Isis poisons the superior god Ra and refuses to cure him unless he reveals his secret name to her.

Upon learning the name, she tells it to her son, Horus, and by learning it they gain greater knowledge and power.

In addition to their names, gods were given epithets , like "possessor of splendor", "ruler of Abydos ", or "lord of the sky", that describe some aspect of their roles or their worship.

Because of the gods' multiple and overlapping roles, deities can have many epithets—with more important gods accumulating more titles—and the same epithet can apply to many deities.

The Egyptians regarded the division between male and female as fundamental to all beings, including deities. Sex and gender were closely tied to creation and thus rebirth.

Female deities were often relegated to a supporting role, stimulating their male consorts' virility and nurturing their children, although goddesses were given a larger role in procreation late in Egyptian history.

Female deities also had a violent aspect that could be seen either positively, as with the goddesses Wadjet and Nekhbet who protected the king, or negatively.

The Egyptian conception of sexuality was heavily focused on heterosexual reproduction, and homosexual acts were usually viewed with disapproval.

Some texts nevertheless refer to homosexual behavior between male deities. Other couplings between male deities could be viewed positively and even produce offspring, as in one text in which Khnum is born from the union of Ra and Shu.

Egyptian deities are connected in a complex and shifting array of relationships. A god's connections and interactions with other deities helped define its character.

Thus Isis, as the mother and protector of Horus, was a great healer as well as the patroness of kings. Family relationships are a common type of connection between gods.

Deities often form male and female pairs. Families of three deities, with a father, mother, and child, represent the creation of new life and the succession of the father by the child, a pattern that connects divine families with royal succession.

The pattern they set grew more widespread over time, so that many deities in local cult centers, like Ptah, Sekhmet, and their child Nefertum at Memphis and Amun, Mut , and Khonsu at Thebes, were assembled into family triads.

Hathor could act as the mother, consort, or daughter of the sun god, and the child form of Horus acted as the third member of many local family triads.

Other divine groups were composed of deities with interrelated roles, or who together represented a region of the Egyptian mythological cosmos.

There were sets of gods for the hours of the day and night and for each nome province of Egypt. Some of these groups contain a specific, symbolically important number of deities.

Ra, who is dynamic and light-producing, and Osiris, who is static and shrouded in darkness, merge into a single god each night.

These deities stood for the plurality of all gods, as well as for their own cult centers the major cities of Thebes, Heliopolis , and Memphis and for many threefold sets of concepts in Egyptian religious thought.

Nine, the product of three and three, represents a multitude, so the Egyptians called several large groups "enneads", or sets of nine, even if they had more than nine members.

This divine assemblage had a vague and changeable hierarchy. Gods with broad influence in the cosmos or who were mythologically older than others had higher positions in divine society.

At the apex of this society was the king of the gods , who was usually identified with the creator deity. Horus was the most important god in the Early Dynastic Period, Ra rose to preeminence in the Old Kingdom, Amun was supreme in the New, and in the Ptolemaic and Roman periods, Isis was the divine queen and creator goddess.

The gods were believed to manifest in many forms. The spirits of the gods were composed of many of these same elements. Any visible manifestation of a god's power could be called its ba ; thus, the sun was called the ba of Ra.

The cult images of gods that were the focus of temple rituals, as well as the sacred animals that represented certain deities, were believed to house divine ba s in this way.

Nationally important deities gave rise to local manifestations, which sometimes absorbed the characteristics of older regional gods.

During the New Kingdom, one man was accused of stealing clothes by an oracle supposed to communicate messages from Amun of Pe-Khenty.

He consulted two other local oracles of Amun hoping for a different judgment. Horus could be a powerful sky god or vulnerable child, and these forms were sometimes counted as independent deities.

Gods were combined with each other as easily as they were divided. A god could be called the ba of another, or two or more deities could be joined into one god with a combined name and iconography.

Unlike other situations for which this term is used, the Egyptian practice was not meant to fuse competing belief systems, although foreign deities could be syncretized with native ones.

Syncretic combinations were not permanent; a god who was involved in one combination continued to appear separately and to form new combinations with other deities.

Horus absorbed several falcon gods from various regions, such as Khenti-irty and Khenti-kheti , who became little more than local manifestations of him; Hathor subsumed a similar cow goddess, Bat ; and an early funerary god, Khenti-Amentiu , was supplanted by Osiris and Anubis.

In the reign of Akhenaten c. Akhenaten ceased to fund the temples of other deities and erased gods' names and images on monuments, targeting Amun in particular.

This new religious system, sometimes called Atenism , differed dramatically from the polytheistic worship of many gods in all other periods.

The Aten had no mythology, and it was portrayed and described in more abstract terms than traditional deities.

Whereas, in earlier times, newly important gods were integrated into existing religious beliefs, Atenism insisted on a single understanding of the divine that excluded the traditional multiplicity of perspectives.

There is evidence suggesting that the general populace continued to worship other gods in private. For these reasons, the Egyptologists Dominic Montserrat and John Baines have suggested that Akhenaten may have been monolatrous , worshipping a single deity while acknowledging the existence of others.

Scholars have long debated whether traditional Egyptian religion ever asserted that the multiple gods were, on a deeper level, unified.

Reasons for this debate include the practice of syncretism, which might suggest that all the separate gods could ultimately merge into one, and the tendency of Egyptian texts to credit a particular god with power that surpasses all other deities.

Another point of contention is the appearance of the word "god" in wisdom literature , where the term does not refer to a specific deity or group of deities.

Wallis Budge believed that Egyptian commoners were polytheistic, but knowledge of the true monotheistic nature of the religion was reserved for the elite, who wrote the wisdom literature.

In , Erik Hornung published a study [Note 3] rebutting these views. He points out that in any given period many deities, even minor ones, were described as superior to all others.

He also argues that the unspecified "god" in the wisdom texts is a generic term for whichever deity is relevant to the reader in the situation at hand.

Henotheism , Hornung says, describes Egyptian religion better than other labels. An Egyptian could worship any deity at a particular time and credit it with supreme power in that moment, without denying the other gods or merging them all with the god that he or she focused on.

Hornung concludes that the gods were fully unified only in myth, at the time before creation, after which the multitude of gods emerged from a uniform nonexistence.

Hornung's arguments have greatly influenced other scholars of Egyptian religion, but some still believe that at times the gods were more unified than he allows.

It equated the single deity with the sun and dismissed all other gods. Then, in the backlash against Atenism, priestly theologians described the universal god in a different way, one that coexisted with traditional polytheism.

The one god was believed to transcend the world and all the other deities, while at the same time, the multiple gods were aspects of the one.

According to Assmann, this one god was especially equated with Amun, the dominant god in the late New Kingdom, whereas for the rest of Egyptian history the universal deity could be identified with many other gods.

Allen says that coexisting notions of one god and many gods would fit well with the "multiplicity of approaches" in Egyptian thought, as well as with the henotheistic practice of ordinary worshippers.

He says that the Egyptians may have recognized the unity of the divine by "identifying their uniform notion of 'god' with a particular god, depending on the particular situation.

Egyptian writings describe the gods' bodies in detail. They are made of precious materials; their flesh is gold, their bones are silver, and their hair is lapis lazuli.

They give off a scent that the Egyptians likened to the incense used in rituals. Some texts give precise descriptions of particular deities, including their height and eye color.

Yet these characteristics are not fixed; in myths, gods change their appearances to suit their own purposes. The Egyptians' visual representations of their gods are therefore not literal.

They symbolize specific aspects of each deity's character, functioning much like the ideograms in hieroglyphic writing.

His black coloring alludes to the color of mummified flesh and to the fertile black soil that Egyptians saw as a symbol of resurrection.

Most deities were depicted in several ways. Hathor could be a cow, cobra, lioness, or a woman with bovine horns or ears.

By depicting a given god in different ways, the Egyptians expressed different aspects of its essential nature. These forms include men and women anthropomorphism , animals zoomorphism , and, more rarely, inanimate objects.

Combinations of forms , such as deities with human bodies and animal heads, are common. Certain features of divine images are more useful than others in determining a god's identity.

The head of a given divine image is particularly significant. In contrast, the objects held in gods' hands tend to be generic. The forms in which the gods are shown, although diverse, are limited in many ways.

Many creatures that are widespread in Egypt were never used in divine iconography. Others could represent many deities, often because these deities had major characteristics in common.

For instance, the horse, which was only introduced in the Second Intermediate Period c. Similarly, the clothes worn by anthropomorphic deities in most periods changed little from the styles used in the Old Kingdom: a kilt, false beard, and often a shirt for male gods and a long, tight-fitting dress for goddesses.

The basic anthropomorphic form varies. Child gods are depicted nude, as are some adult gods when their procreative powers are emphasized.

In official writings, pharaohs are said to be divine, and they are constantly depicted in the company of the deities of the pantheon.

Each pharaoh and his predecessors were considered the successors of the gods who had ruled Egypt in mythic prehistory. The few women who made themselves pharaohs, such as Hatshepsut , connected themselves with these same goddesses while adopting much of the masculine imagery of kingship.

For these reasons, scholars disagree about how genuinely most Egyptians believed the king to be a god. He may only have been considered divine when he was performing ceremonies.

However much it was believed, the king's divine status was the rationale for his role as Egypt's representative to the gods, as he formed a link between the divine and human realms.

These things were provided by the cults that the king oversaw, with their priests and laborers. Although the Egyptians believed their gods to be present in the world around them, contact between the human and divine realms was mostly limited to specific circumstances.

The ba of a god was said to periodically leave the divine realm to dwell in the images of that god. In these states, it was believed, people could come close to the gods and sometimes receive messages from them.

The Egyptians therefore believed that in death they would exist on the same level as the gods and understand their mysterious nature.

Temples, where the state rituals were carried out, were filled with images of the gods. The most important temple image was the cult statue in the inner sanctuary.

These statues were usually less than life-size and made of the same precious materials that were said to form the gods' bodies.

The gods residing in the temples of Egypt collectively represented the entire pantheon. To insulate the sacred power in the sanctuary from the impurities of the outside world, the Egyptians enclosed temple sanctuaries and greatly restricted access to them.

People other than kings and high priests were thus denied contact with cult statues. The more public parts of temples often incorporated small places for prayer, from doorways to freestanding chapels near the back of the temple building.

Egyptian gods were involved in human lives as well as in the overarching order of nature. This divine influence applied mainly to Egypt, as foreign peoples were traditionally believed to be outside the divine order.

In the New Kingdom, when other nations were under Egyptian control, foreigners were said to be under the sun god's benign rule in the same way that Egyptians were.

Thoth, as the overseer of time, was said to allot fixed lifespans to both humans and gods. Several texts refer to gods influencing or inspiring human decisions, working through a person's "heart"—the seat of emotion and intellect in Egyptian belief.

Deities were also believed to give commands, instructing the king in the governance of his realm and regulating the management of their temples.

Egyptian texts rarely mention direct commands given to private persons, and these commands never evolved into a set of divinely enforced moral codes.

Because deities were the upholders of maat , morality was connected with them. For example, the gods judged humans' moral righteousness after death, and by the New Kingdom, a verdict of innocence in this judgment was believed to be necessary for admittance into the afterlife.

In general, however, morality was based on practical ways to uphold maat in daily life, rather than on strict rules that the gods laid out.

Humans had free will to ignore divine guidance and the behavior required by maat , but by doing so they could bring divine punishment upon themselves.

Natural disasters and human ailments were seen as the work of angry divine ba s. Egyptian texts take different views on whether the gods are responsible when humans suffer unjustly.

Misfortune was often seen as a product of isfet , the cosmic disorder that was the opposite of maat , and therefore the gods were not guilty of causing evil events.

Some deities who were closely connected with isfet , such as Set, could be blamed for disorder within the world without placing guilt on the other gods.

Some writings do accuse the deities of causing human misery, while others give theodicies in the gods' defense. Because of this human misbehavior, the creator is distant from his creation, allowing suffering to exist.

New Kingdom writings do not question the just nature of the gods as strongly as those of the Middle Kingdom. They emphasize humans' direct, personal relationships with deities and the gods' power to intervene in human events.

People in this era put faith in specific gods who they hoped would help and protect them through their lives. As a result, upholding the ideals of maat grew less important than gaining the gods' favor as a way to guarantee a good life.

Official religious practices, which maintained maat for the benefit of all Egypt, were related to, but distinct from, the religious practices of ordinary people, [] who sought the gods' help for their personal problems.

Official religion involved a variety of rituals, based in temples. Some rites were performed every day, whereas others were festivals, taking place at longer intervals and often limited to a particular temple or deity.

Festivals often involved a ceremonial procession in which a cult image was carried out of the temple in a barque -shaped shrine.

These processions served various purposes. Such rituals were meant to be repetitions of the events of the mythic past, renewing the beneficial effects of the original events.

The returning greenery symbolized the renewal of the god's own life. Personal interaction with the gods took many forms. People who wanted information or advice consulted oracles, run by temples, that were supposed to convey gods' answers to questions.

The performer of a private rite often took on the role of a god in a myth, or even threatened a deity, to involve the gods in accomplishing the goal.

Prayer and private offerings are generally called "personal piety": acts that reflect a close relationship between an individual and a god.

Evidence of personal piety is scant before the New Kingdom. Votive offerings and personal names, many of which are theophoric , suggest that commoners felt some connection between themselves and their gods.

But firm evidence of devotion to deities became visible only in the New Kingdom, reaching a peak late in that era.

They gave offerings of figurines that represented the gods they were praying to, or that symbolized the result they desired; thus a relief image of Hathor and a statuette of a woman could both represent a prayer for fertility.

Occasionally, a person took a particular god as a patron, dedicating his or her property or labor to the god's cult.

These practices continued into the latest periods of Egyptian history. The worship of some Egyptian gods spread to neighboring lands, especially to Canaan and Nubia during the New Kingdom, when those regions were under pharaonic control.

In Canaan, the exported deities, including Hathor, Amun, and Set, were often syncretized with native gods, who in turn spread to Egypt.

Taweret became a goddess in Minoan Crete , [] and Amun's oracle at Siwa Oasis was known to and consulted by people across the Mediterranean region.

These newcomers equated the Egyptian gods with their own, as part of the Greco-Roman tradition of interpretatio graeca.

Instead, Greek and Roman gods were adopted as manifestations of Egyptian ones. Egyptian cults sometimes incorporated Greek language , philosophy , iconography, [] and even temple architecture.

Temples and cults in Egypt itself declined as the Roman economy deteriorated in the third century AD, and beginning in the fourth century, Christians suppressed the veneration of Egyptian deities.

In contrast, many of the practices involved in their worship, such as processions and oracles, were adapted to fit Christian ideology and persisted as part of the Coptic Church.

But many festivals and other traditions of modern Egyptians, both Christian and Muslim , resemble the worship of their ancestors' gods.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Gods of Egypt. Deities in the Ancient Egyption religion. For the fantasy film, see Gods of Egypt film.

Funerals Offering formula Temples Pyramids. Deities list. Symbols and objects. Related religions. Main article: Atenism. Some inanimate objects that represent deities are drawn from nature, such as trees or the disk-like emblems for the sun and the moon.

Further information: Pharaoh. Traditional African religion portal.

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