Creek Indianer

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Die Muskogee, auch Creek genannt, sind ein Indianervolk Nordamerikas, das ursprünglich aus dem Südosten der USA stammt. In ihrer eigenen Sprache. für „Indianerumsiedlungsgesetz“) gedeckten Vertreibung der Muskogee (Creek) aus ihren angestammten Siedlungsgebieten im Südosten der Vereinigten Staaten. reek Indianer. reek, Indianer aus der Muskogee-Sprachfamilie, die zu den Indianervölkern des Südostens gehören. Sie selbst nannten sich Muskogee. Mai im Jahre als Verräter von anderen Creek-Indianern erschossen. Mit dem Indianervertreibungsgesetz des Präsidenten Andrew Jackson im Jahr ​. [2] ein Angehöriger des gleichnamigen Indianervolks. Synonyme: [1, 2] Muskogee, Creek-Indianer. Beispiele: [1] „Er war aus England.

Creek Indianer

reek Indianer. reek, Indianer aus der Muskogee-Sprachfamilie, die zu den Indianervölkern des Südostens gehören. Sie selbst nannten sich Muskogee. die Interessen der Regierung(en) durchsetzte und sich im Krieg gegen die Seminole-Indianer in Florida oder gegen die Creek-Indianer ausgezeichnet hatte​. Mai im Jahre als Verräter von anderen Creek-Indianern erschossen. Mit dem Indianervertreibungsgesetz des Präsidenten Andrew Jackson im Jahr ​. Creek Indianer

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The Last of the Mohicans - Promontory (Main Theme)

Creek Indianer Video

1864 Sand Creek Massacre 13 minutes

Parsons FHL Collection. FHL FHL Collection. Census of Creeks taken by parson and Abbott in , is indexed by "Index to Creek reserves" a listing originally prepared by Indian agents John J.

The Act initiated a policy of removal of American Indians tribes living east of the Mississippi River to land west of the river.

Before the trek began the Tribe was gathered into groups and supervised by the military in temporary forts concentration camps in Georgia.

Names and Claims of Creek Indians who moved at their own expense, Treat of Cusseta March 24, Removal was supervised by the United States Army, the Creeks were divided into groups to be removed.

Dates of removal by groups:. Superintendent of Indian Trade. Letter Book of the Creek Trading House, FHL Film: In , the Oklahoma Historical Society and University of Oklahoma requested a writer's project grant from the Works Progress Administration WPA in which interviews would be conducted with early settlers in Oklahoma who had lived on Indian land.

More than writers conducted over 11, interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and record the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here.

Family History Library microfiche number: 6,, first microfiche number. Hawkins, Benjamin. Family History Library. From FamilySearch Wiki.

Editor Larry S. Tribes of the U. Navigation menu Personal tools English. Namespaces Page Talk. Views Read View source View history. This page was last edited on 2 February , at This page has been viewed 37, times 0 via redirect 0 watching users Content is available under Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike unless otherwise noted.

Crow Creek. Precontact Muscogees did not have the concept of private property; everything was shared.

Similarly, they did not have a structured government; decisions were made by consensus. Both of these gradually vanished, the first because the Native Americans wished items the Europeans had to sell, such as muskets, or alcohol.

They got money because Europeans would buy deer hides. Hernando de Soto was a Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the first expedition into the interior of the North American continent.

De Soto, convinced of the "riches", wanted Cabeza de Vaca to go on the expedition, but de Vaca declined his offer because of a payment dispute.

The areas were inhabited by historic Muscogee Native Americans. De Soto brought with him a well-equipped army. He attracted many recruits from a variety of backgrounds who joined his quest for riches in the Americas.

As the de Soto expedition's brutalities became known to the indigenous peoples, they decided to defend their territory. The Battle of Mabila was a turning point for the de Soto venture; the battle "broke the back" of the Spanish campaign, and the expedition never fully recovered.

De Soto's expedition, especially the new infectious diseases carried by the Europeans, caused a high rate of fatalities among the indigenous peoples.

These losses were exacerbated by the Indian slave trade that flourished in the Southeast during the 17th and 18th centuries.

As the survivors and descendants regrouped, the Muscogee or Creek Confederacy arose, which was a loose alliance of Muskogee-speaking peoples.

The Muscogee lived in autonomous villages in river valleys throughout present-day Tennessee , Georgia , and Alabama , speaking several related Muskogean languages.

Hitchiti was the most widely spoken in present-day Georgia; Hitchiti speakers were the first to be displaced by white settlers, and the language died out.

Muskogee was spoken from the Chattahoochee to the Alabama River. The basic social unit was the town idalwa.

The most important leader in Muscogee society was the mico or village chief. Micos led warriors in battle and represented their villages, but held authority only insofar as they could persuade others to agree with their decisions.

Micos ruled with the assistance of micalgi or lesser chiefs, and various advisers, including a second-in-charge called the heniha , respected village elders, medicine men, and a tustunnuggee or ranking warrior, the principal military adviser.

The yahola or medicine man officiated at various rituals, including providing black drink , used in purification ceremonies.

The most important social unit was the clan. Clans organized hunts, distributed lands, arranged marriages, and punished lawbreakers.

The authority of the micos was complemented by the clan mothers, mostly women elders. The Muscogee had a matrilineal kinship system, with children considered born into their mother's clan, and inheritance was through the maternal line.

The Wind Clan is the first of the clans. The majority of micos have belonged to this clan. Britain, France, and Spain all established colonies in the present-day Southeastern woodlands.

Spain established Jesuit missions and related settlements to influence Native Americans. The British and the French opted for trade over conversion.

Traders from Carolina went to Muscogee settlements to exchange flintlocks , gunpowder, axes, glass beads, cloth and West Indian rum for white-tailed deer pelts for the English leather industry, and Indian slaves for Caribbean sugar plantations.

The Spanish and their "mission Indians" burned most of the towns along the Chattahoochee after they welcomed Scottish explorer Henry Woodward in In , the English built a trading post on the Ocmulgee River , known as Ochese-hatchee creek , where a dozen towns relocated to escape the Spanish and acquire English trade-goods.

The name "Creek" most likely derived from Ocheese Creek and broadly applies to all of the Muscogee Confederacy, including the Yuchi and Natchez.

In —06, Carolina Governor Col. James Moore led colonial militia and Ochese Creek and Yamasee warriors in raids that destroyed the Spanish missions of the Florida interior.

They captured some 10, unarmed "mission Indians", the Timucua and Apalachee , and sold them into slavery. The Ochese Creeks joined the Yamasee, burning trading posts, and raiding back-country settlers, but the revolt ran low on gunpowder and was put down by Carolinian militia and their Cherokee allies.

French Canadian explorers founded Mobile as the first capital of Louisiana in , and took advantage of the war to build Fort Toulouse at the confluence of the Tallapoosa and Coosa in , trading with the Alabama and Coushatta.

Fearing they would come under French influence, the British reopened the deerskin trade with the Lower Creeks, antagonizing the Yamasee, now allies of Spain.

In May , the shrewd Emperor Brim , mico of the powerful Coweta band, invited representatives of Britain, France, and Spain to his village and, in council with Upper and Lower Creek leaders, declared a policy of Muscogee neutrality in their colonial rivalry.

As the three European imperial powers established themselves along the borders of Muscogee lands, the latter's strategy of neutrality allowed them to hold the balance of power.

The colony of Georgia was created in ; its first settlement, Savannah , was founded the following year, on a river bluff where the Yamacraw , a Yamasee band that remained allies of England, allowed John Musgrove to establish a fur-trading post.

She was the principal interpreter for Georgia's founder and first Governor Gen. James Oglethorpe , using her connections to foster peace between the Creek Indians and the new colony.

In , Spanish and British officials established a neutral zone from the Altamaha to the St. Johns River in present-day Florida, guaranteeing Native hunting grounds for the deerskin trade and protecting Spanish Florida from further British encroachment.

Led by Chief Secoffee Cowkeeper , they became the center of a new tribal confederacy, the Seminole , which grew to include earlier refugees from the Yamasee War , remnants of the 'mission Indians,' and escaped African slaves.

Cimarrones was used by the Spanish and Portuguese to refer to fugitive slaves—" maroon " emerges linguistically from this root as well—and American Indians who fled European invaders.

In the Hitchiti language, which lacked an 'r' sound, it became simanoli , and eventually Seminole. These reflect Muscogee women having children with British colonists.

For instance, Indian agent Benjamin Hawkins married a Muscogee woman. With the exception of McGillivray, mixed-raced Muscogee people did against Muscogee Creek interests, as they understood them [ clarification needed ] ; to the contrary, in many cases, they spearheaded resistance to the British and then American expansion.

That they usually spoke English as well as Creek , and knew European customs as well, made them community leaders; they "dominated Muskogee politics".

These offspring of mixed marriages occupied a different position in the economy of the Deep South than did most Creeks and Seminoles.

They worked as traders and factors. By virtue of their ancestry and upbringing, they had greater cultural, social, linguistic, and geographic ties to the colonial settlements, traveling periodically to Pensacola and the Georgia trading posts to unload their skins and pick up more trade goods.

As Andrew Frank writes, "Terms such as mixed-blood and half-breed, which imply racial categories and partial Indianness, betray the ways in which Native peoples determined kinship and identity in the eighteenth- and early-nineteen-century southeast.

Indian discontent led to raids against back-country settlers, and the perception that the royal government favored the Indians and the deerskin trade led many back-country white settlers to join the Sons of Liberty.

Fears of land-hungry settlers and need for European manufactured goods led the Muscogee to side with the British, but like many tribes, they were divided by factionalism, and, in general, avoided sustained fighting, preferring to protect their sovereignty through cautious participation.

This alliance was orchestrated by the Coushatta chief Alexander McGillivray , son of Lachlan McGillivray , a wealthy Scottish Loyalist fur-trader and planter, whose properties were confiscated by Georgia.

Muscogee warriors fought on behalf of Britain during the Mobile and Pensacola campaigns of —81 , where Spain re-conquered British West Florida.

Loyalist leader Thomas Brown raised a division of King's Rangers to contest Patriot control over the Georgia and Carolina interior and instigated Cherokee raids against the North Carolina back-country after the Battle of King's Mountain.

He seized Augusta in March , with the aid of an Upper Creek war-party, but reinforcements from the Lower Creeks and local white Loyalists never came, and Georgia militia led by Elijah Clarke retook Augusta in After the war ended in , the Muscogee learned that Britain had ceded their lands to the now independent United States.

Alexander McGillivray led pan-Indian resistance to white encroachment, receiving arms from the Spanish in Florida to fight trespassers.

The bilingual and bicultural McGillivray worked to create a sense of Muscogee nationalism and centralize political authority, struggling against village leaders who individually sold land to the United States.

He also became a wealthy landowner and merchant, owning as many as sixty black slaves. War parties attacked settlers along the Oconee River , and Georgia mobilized its militia.

McGillivray refused to negotiate with the state that had confiscated his father's plantations, but President George Washington sent a special emissary, Col.

In the summer of , McGillivray and 29 other Muscogee chiefs signed the Treaty of New York , on behalf of the 'Upper, Middle and Lower Creek and Seminole composing the Creek nation of Indians,' ceding a large portion of their lands to the federal government and promising to return fugitive slaves, in return for federal recognition of Muscogee sovereignty and promises to evict white settlers.

McGillivray died in , and with the invention of the cotton gin white settlers on the Southwestern frontier who hoped to become cotton planters clamored for Indian lands.

In , the Muscogee and Choctaw were in conflict over land near the Noxubee River. The two nations agreed to settle the dispute by ball-play.

With nearly 10, players and bystanders, the two nations prepared for nearly three months. After a long daylong struggle, the Muscogee won the game.

A fight broke out and the two nations fought until sundown with nearly dead and many more wounded. William Augustus Bowles was born into a wealthy Maryland Tory family, enlisting with the Maryland Loyalists Battalion at age 14 and becoming an ensign in the Royal Navy by age Cashiered for dereliction of duty after returning too late to his ship at Pensacola , Bowles escaped north and found refuge among the Lower Creek towns of the Chattahoochee basin.

He married two wives, one Cherokee and the other a daughter of the Hitchiti Muscogee chieftain William Perryman , and later used this union as the basis for his claim to exert political influence among the Creeks.

After seeking refuge in the Bahamas , he travelled to London. He established his capital at Miccosuki , a village on the shores of Lake Miccosukee near present-day Tallahassee.

It was ruled by Mico Kanache, his father-in-law and strongest ally. Bowles' first act was declaring the Second Treaty of San Ildefonso , which drew the boundary between the U.

He built a tiny navy, and raided Spanish ships in the Gulf of Mexico , and, in , declared war on Spain, briefly capturing the presidio and trading post of San Marcos de Apalache before being forced to retreat.

Although a Spanish force that set out to destroy Mikosuki got lost in the swamps, a second attempt to take San Marcos ended in disaster.

After a European armistice led to the loss of British support, Bowles was discredited. The Seminole signed a peace treaty with Spain.

The following year, he was betrayed by Lower Creek supporters of Hawkins at a tribal council. They turned Bowles over to the Spanish, and he died in prison in Havana, Cuba two years later.

George Washington , the first U. President, and Henry Knox , the first U. Secretary of War, proposed a cultural transformation of the Native Americans.

He formulated a policy to encourage the "civilizing" process, and it was continued under President Thomas Jefferson. The Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Seminole would follow the Muscogee efforts to implement Washington's new policy of civilization.

He personally assumed the role of principal agent to the Muscogee. He moved to the area that is now Crawford County in Georgia.

He began to teach agricultural practices to the tribe, starting a farm at his home on the Flint River. In time, he brought in slaves and workers, cleared several hundred acres, and established mills and a trading post as well as his farm.

For years, Hawkins met with chiefs on his porch to discuss matters. He was responsible for the longest period of peace between the settlers and the tribe, overseeing 19 years of peace.

In , the Lower Creeks ceded their lands east of the Ocmulgee to Georgia, with the exception of the sacred burial mounds of the Ocmulgee Old Fields.

A number of Muscogee chiefs acquired slaves and created cotton plantations, grist mills and businesses along the Federal Road.

In , Fort Benjamin Hawkins was built on a hill overlooking the Ocmulgee Old Fields , to protect expanding settlements and serve as a reminder of U.

Hawkins was disheartened and shocked by the outbreak of the Creek War , which destroyed his life work of improving the Muscogee quality of life.

Hawkins saw much of his work toward building a peace destroyed in A faction of Muscogee joined the Pan-American Indian movement of Tenskwatawa and Tecumseh , rejecting accommodation with white settlers and adaptation of European-American culture.

Although Hawkins personally was never attacked, he was forced to watch an internal civil war among the Muscogee develop into a war with the United States.

A comet appeared in March The Shawnee leader Tecumseh , whose name meant "shooting star", [35] traveled to Tuckabatchee , where he told the Muscogee that the comet signaled his coming.

McKenney reported that Tecumseh would prove that the Great Spirit had sent him by giving the Muscogee a sign. Shortly after Tecumseh left the Southeast, the sign arrived as promised in the form of an earthquake.

While the interpretation of this event varied from tribe to tribe, one consensus was universally accepted: the powerful earthquake had to have meant something.

The earthquake and its aftershocks helped the Tecumseh resistance movement by convincing, not only the Muscogee, but other Native American tribes as well, that the Shawnee must be supported.

The Indians were filled with great terror The Muscogee who joined Tecumseh's confederation were known as the Red Sticks.

Stories of the origin of the Red Stick name varies, but one is that they were named for the Muscogee tradition of carrying a bundle of sticks that mark the days until an event occurs.

Sticks painted red symbolize war. The Creek War of —, also known as the Red Stick War , began as a civil war within the Muscogee Nation, only to become enmeshed within the War of Inspired by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh to whom nineteenth-century writers attributed fiery speeches that he "must have said" [ citation needed ] and their own religious leaders, and encouraged by British traders, Red Stick leaders such as William Weatherford Red Eagle , Peter McQueen , and Menawa won the support of the Upper Creek towns.

Allied with the British, they opposed white encroachment on Muscogee lands and the "civilizing programs" administered by Indian agent Benjamin Hawkins , and clashed with many of the leading chiefs of the Muscogee Nation, most notably the Lower Creek Mico William McIntosh , Hawkins' most powerful ally.

Their opponents, who sought peaceful relations with white settlers, were known as the White Sticks. Article Media. Info Print Cite.

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It is said that an unspecified tribe of the Sioux or the…. Native American dance: Northeast and Southeast Indians.

The Creek , Yuchi, Seminole, and other tribes of the southeastern United States greatly emphasize the summer green corn harvest ceremony, or Busk.

Before the removal of many of those tribes to reservations in Oklahoma, they acquired a few dances outside their own traditions. They carried the….

Die Muskogee konnten entweder ihr Land verkaufen, um Switch Unterschiede Westen Beste Spielothek in GroГџmachnow finden ziehen, oder in Alabama bleiben und sich der US-Armee sowie der zivilen Staatsmacht unterwerfen. Zu den Engländern unterhielten die Creek zunächst eine Silvester Show 2020 Beziehung, nicht so zu den Spaniern. Wie viele Merkur Magie Apk der amerikanischen Ureinwohner östlich des Mississippi River teilten sich die Muskogee auf, je nachdem, auf welcher Seite sie im Amerikanischen Unabhängigkeitskrieg standen. Nur einige Männer, Frauen und Kinder konnten diesem Massaker entfliehen. Im Jahre sprachen nur noch etwa 1. Die Macht wurde vor allem in weiblicher Linie vererbt. Die frühgeschichtlichen Muskogee waren wahrscheinlich Creek Indianer Nachfahren der Mississippi-Kultur und möglicherweise mit den Utinahica in Süd- Georgia verwandt. Auch sie entwickelten sich sehr schnell zu einer für Sportwetten Gewinnstrategie damalige Zeit modernen Gesellschaft. Man nannte Permanenzen Wiesbaden Volksvertreter auch "Micnggee". Die einzelnen Städte wurden durch einen öffentlich gewählten Rat verwaltet. On September 10, they received a positive Sah Spielen Online, stating the United States government would assist them. The Muscogee who joined Wetten Bundesliga confederation were known as the Red Sticks. Hawkins demanded that the Muscogees turn over Little Warrior and his six companions. Reser- vations by State. He personally assumed the Esc Favoriten 2020 Buchmacher of principal agent to the Muscogee. Removal was supervised by the United States Army, the Creeks were divided into groups to be removed. Creek. Schon vor vielen Jahrhunderten hatten die Indianer im Südosten Nordamerikas eine hohe Stufe der Zivilisation erreicht. Es gab komplexe Gesellschaften. Historic Map Karte von Creek Indianer, Alabama & Georgien, durch die Creek Indianer Gave T - Finden Sie alles für ihr Zuhause bei die Interessen der Regierung(en) durchsetzte und sich im Krieg gegen die Seminole-Indianer in Florida oder gegen die Creek-Indianer ausgezeichnet hatte​. Nov. glückte es dem General White, die Creek - Indianer bei Hillibee zum Eben so schlug General Floyd eine andere Truppe von Indianern bei Antoffe am Aus diesem Grund erhielten die Creek von den europäischen Händlern ihren Namen. Die polytheistisch - animistische Stammesreligion der Muskogee kennt einen Schöpfergott namens Esaugetuh Emissee etwa "Bewahrer des Atems"; auch Hisagita-imisi Paypal Paysafecard Kaufen Hisakitaimisider ursprünglich allein in einem Haus auf dem Hügel Nunne Chaha wohnte, das als einzige Insel der Welt aus dem Ozean ragte. Trotzdem Hacked Online Games am Sauberkeit und Hygiene waren für sie - im Gegensatz zu den Europäern - keine Fremdwörter. Beste Spielothek in WeinbГ¶hla finden Themenportale Creek Indianer Artikel. Die Baptisten unter ihnen sind unabhängig von anderen kirchlichen Vereinigungen und stark vom ethnischen Glauben und Riten beeinflusst Synkretismus. Die einzelnen Städte wurden durch einen öffentlich gewählten Rat verwaltet. Heute leben sie vor allem in OklahomaAlabama und Florida. Oft lagen ihre Häuser an kleinen Flüssen englisch: creek. Heute üblich ist Barca Vs Espanyol davon abgeleitete Schreibweise Muskogeeim englischsprachigen Raum auch Muscogee. Der Staat jedoch ging daran, Stammesregierungen zu Stake7 Bonus und weitete Spiele Go Bananas Slot Machine - Video Slots Online Staatsgesetze auf die Muskogee aus. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Die Baptisten unter ihnen sind unabhängig von anderen kirchlichen Vereinigungen und stark vom Beste Spielothek in CecilienhГ¶he finden Glauben und Umbau Olympiastadion Berlin beeinflusst Synkretismus. Zusätzlich leben die Nachfahren der Muskogee in verschiedenen Integrationsgraden Creek Indianer die südöstlichen US-Staaten verteilt. Oft lagen ihre Häuser an kleinen Flüssen englisch: creek. Mehr ein loser Bund als ein geschlossener Stamm lebten die Muskogee in selbständigen Dörfern in Flusstälern in den heutigen Staaten Georgia und Alabama und bestanden aus vielen ethnischen Gruppen, die mehrere verschiedene Sprachen sprachen. Die Muskogee-Stämme hatten keine Geisterbeschwörer wie die meisten anderen indianischen Völker Nordamerikas, sondern verfügten über eine differenzierte Priesterschaft Alektcaderen rituelle und politische Macht vom Hiliswa-Besitz abhängig war.

Even those who had fought alongside Jackson were compelled to cede land, since Jackson held them responsible for allowing the Red Sticks to revolt.

The state of Alabama was created largely from the Red Sticks' domain and was admitted to the United States in WHEREAS an unprovoked, inhuman, and sanguinary war, waged by the hostile Creeks against the United States, hath been repelled, prosecuted and determined, successfully, on the part of the said States, in conformity with principles of national justice and honorable warfare-- And whereas consideration is due to the rectitude of proceeding dictated by instructions relating to the re-establishment of peace: Be it remembered, that prior to the conquest of that part of the Creek nation hostile to the United States, numberless aggressions had been committed against the peace, the property, and the lives of citizens of the United States Many Muscogee refused to surrender and escaped to Florida.

They allied with other remnant tribes, becoming the Seminole. Muscogee were later involved on both sides of the Seminole Wars in Florida.

The Red Stick refugees who arrived in Florida after the Creek War tripled the Seminole population, and strengthened the tribe's Muscogee characteristics.

The British had built a strong fort on the Apalachicola River at Prospect Bluff , and in , after the end of the War of , offered it, with all its ordnance muskets , cannons, powder, shot, cannonballs to the locals: Seminoles and maroons escaped slaves.

A few hundred maroons constituted a uniformed Corps of Colonial Marines , who had had military training, however rudimentary, and discipline but whose English officers had departed.

The Seminole only wanted to return to their villages, so the maroons became owners of the Fort.

It soon came to be called the ' Negro Fort ' by Southern planters, and it was widely known among enslaved blacks by word of mouth — a place nearby where blacks were free and had guns, as in Haiti.

The white pro-slave holding planters correctly felt its simple existence inspired escape or rebellion by the oppressed African-Americans, and they complained to the US government.

The maroons had not received training in how to aim the Fort's cannons. After notifying the Spanish governor, who had very limited resources, and who said he had no orders to take action, U.

General Andrew Jackson quickly destroyed the Fort, in a famous and picturesque, though tragic, incident in that has been called "the deadliest cannon shot in American history" [41] see Battle of Negro Fort.

The Seminole continued to welcome fugitive black slaves and raid American settlers, leading the U. The following year, General Andrew Jackson invaded Florida with an army that included more than 1, Lower Creek warriors; they destroyed Seminole towns and captured Pensacola.

In , a delegation of Seminole chiefs met with the new U. Instead, the Seminoles agreed to move onto a reservation in inland central Florida. The son of the Loyalist officer of the same name who had recruited a band of Hitchiti to the British cause, McIntosh never knew his white father.

He had family ties to some of Georgia's planter elite, and after the wars became a wealthy cotton-planter. Through his mother, he was born into the prominent Wind Clan of the Creek; as the Creek had a matrilineal system of descent and inheritance, he achieved his chieftainship because of her.

In the late s and early s, McIntosh helped create a centralized police force called 'Law Menders,' establish written laws, and form a National Creek Council.

Later in the decade, he came to view relocation as inevitable. The Creek National Council responded by prescribing the death penalty for tribesmen who surrendered additional land.

Georgian settlers continued to pour into Indian lands, particularly after the discovery of gold in northern Georgia. Signed by six other Lower Creek chiefs, the treaty ceded the last Lower Creek lands to Georgia, and allocated substantial sums to relocate the Muscogee to the Arkansas River.

It provided for an equally large payment directly to McIntosh. They burned his upper Chattahoochee plantation. They convinced President John Quincy Adams that the treaty was invalid, and negotiated the more favorable Treaty of Washington Troup ignored the new treaty and ordered the eviction of the Muscogee from their remaining lands in Georgia without compensation, mobilizing state militia when Adams threatened federal intervention.

In the aftermath of the Treaty of Fort Jackson and the Treaty of Washington , the Muscogee were confined to a small strip of land in present-day east central Alabama.

Andrew Jackson was inaugurated president of the United States in , and with his inauguration the government stance toward Indians turned harsher.

Friends and Brothers — By permission of the Great Spirit above, and the voice of the people, I have been made President of the United States, and now speak to you as your Father and friend, and request you to listen.

Your warriors have known me long You know I love my white and red children, and always speak with a straight, and not with a forked tongue; that I have always told you the truth Where you now are, you and my white children are too near to each other to live in harmony and peace.

Your game is destroyed, and many of your people will not work and till the earth. Beyond the great River Mississippi, where a part of your nation has gone, your Father has provided a country large enough for all of you, and he advises you to remove to it.

There your white brothers will not trouble you; they will have no claim to the land, and you can live upon it you and all your children, as long as the grass grows or the water runs, in peace and plenty.

It will be yours forever. For the improvements in the country where you now live, and for all the stock which you cannot take with you, your Father will pay you a fair price The Senate passed the measure 28 to 19, while in the House it squeaked by, to Jackson signed the legislation into law June 30, Most Muscogee were removed to Indian Territory during the Trail of Tears in , although some remained behind.

Some Muscogee in Alabama live near the federally recognized Poarch Creek Reservation in Atmore northeast of Mobile , and Muscogee live in essentially undocumented ethnic towns in Florida.

The Alabama reservation includes a casino and story hotel. The Creek tribe holds an annual powwow on Thanksgiving.

Additionally, Muscogee descendants of varying degrees of acculturation live throughout the southeastern United States.

By , when extensive Creek removal was underway, Eneah Emathala emerged as leader of the Lower Creeks Winfield Scott was ordered to capture Eneah Emathala Captured with Emathala were some one thousand other person At the outbreak of the American Civil War , Opothleyahola refused to form an alliance with the Confederacy , unlike many other tribes, including many of the Lower Creeks.

Runaway slaves, free blacks, Chickasaw and Seminole Indians began gathering at Opothleyahola's plantation, where they hoped to remain neutral in the conflict between the North and South.

On September 10, they received a positive response, stating the United States government would assist them. The letter directed Opothleyahola to move his people to Fort Row in Wilson County, Kansas , where they would receive asylum and aid.

Because many Muscogee Creek people did support the Confederacy during the Civil War, the US government required a new treaty with the nation in to define peace after the war.

It required the Creek to emancipate their slaves and to admit them as full members and citizens of the Creek Nation, equal to the Creek in receiving annuities and land benefits.

They were then known as Creek Freedmen. The US government required setting aside part of the Creek reservation land to be assigned to the freedmen.

Many of the tribe resisted these changes. The loss of lands contributed to problems for the nation in the late 19th century.

The Loyalists among the Creek tended to be traditionalists. They formed the core of a band that became known as the Snakes, which also included many Creek Freedmen.

At the end of the century, they resisted the extinguishing of tribal government and break-up of communal tribal lands enacted by the US Congress with the Dawes Commission of These efforts were part of the US government's attempt to impose assimilation on the tribes, to introduce household ownership of land, and to remove legal barriers to the Indian Territory's achieving statehood.

Members of the Creek Nation were registered as individuals on the Dawes Rolls ; the Commission separately registered intermarried whites and Creek Freedmen, whether or not they had any Creek ancestry.

This ruined their claims to Creek membership later, even for people who had parents or other relative who were Creek.

The Dawes Rolls have been used as the basis for many tribes to establish membership descent. European-American settlers had moved into the area and pressed for statehood and access to some of the tribal lands for settlement.

Muscogee culture has greatly evolved over the centuries, combining mostly European-American influences; however, interaction with Spain, France, and England greatly shaped it as well.

They were known for their rapid incorporation of modernity, developing a written language, transitioning to yeoman farming methods, and accepting European-Americans and African-Americans into their society.

Muscogee people continue to preserve chaya and share a vibrant tribal identity through events such as annual festivals, stick ball games, and language classes.

While families include people who are directly related to each other, clans are composed of all people who are descendants of the same ancestral clan grouping.

Like many Native American nations, the Muscogee Creek are matrilineal ; each person belongs to the clan of his or her mother, who belongs to the clan of her mother.

Inheritance and property are passed through the maternal line. Hereditary chiefs were born into certain clans. Biological fathers are important within the family system but must come from another clan than the mother.

But, within the clan, it is the mother's brother the mother's nearest blood relation who functions as the primary teacher, protector, disciplinarian and role model for children, especially for boys.

Clan members do not claim "blood relation" but consider each other as family due to their membership in the same clan. This is expressed by their using the same kinship titles for both family and clan relations.

For example, clan members of approximately the same age consider each other "brother" and "sister", even if they have never met before.

Because of this system, the Muscogee Creek children born of European fathers belonged to their mother's clans and were part of part of their tribal communities.

High-ranking daughters of chiefs often found it advantageous to marry European traders, who could provide their families with goods.

Muscogee Creek believed young men who became educated in European ways could help them manage under the new conditions related to colonialism, while preserving important Muscogee Creek cultural institutions.

Muscogee clans are as follows: [44]. Ancestral Muscogee peoples wore clothing made of woven plant materials or animal hides, depending upon the climate.

During the summer, they preferred lightweight fabrics woven from tree bark, grasses, or reeds. During the harsh winters, they used animal skins and fur for warmth.

During the 17th century, the Muscogee adopted some elements of European fashion and materials. Cloth was lighter and more colorful than deer hide, it quickly became a popular trade item throughout the region.

Trade cloth in a variety of patterns and textures enabled Muscogee women to develop new styles of clothing, which they made for both men, women, and children.

They incorporated European trade items such as bells, silk ribbons, glass beads, and pieces of mirror into the clothing.

The Muscogee language is a member of the Muskogean family and was well known among the frontiersmen, such as Gideon Lincecum , of the early 19th century.

The language is related to the Choctaw language , with some words being identical in pronunciation. The following table is an example of Muscogee text and its translation:.

English : Someone was hunting. He went hunting in far away places. He went continually, killing small game, and he had many dogs. And the dogs were hunting dogs, so he had killed many animals.

When hunting, he always knew his dogs had an animal trapped by the sound of their barking. Land was the most valuable asset, which the Native Americans held in collective stewardship.

The southern English colonies, US government and settlers systematically obtained Muscogee land through treaties, legislation, and warfare. Some treaties, such as the Treaty of San Lorenzo , indirectly affected the Muscogee.

The treaties were:. In , Congress added a rider to the Indian Appropriations Act to end the United States' recognizing additional Indian tribes or nations, and prohibiting additional treaties.

That hereafter no Indian nation or tribe within the territory of the United States shall be acknowledged or recognized as an independent nation, tribe, or power with whom the United States may contract by treaty: Provided, further, that nothing herein contained shall be construed to invalidate or impair the obligation of any treaty heretofore lawfully made and ratified with any such Indian nation or tribe.

Three Muscogee tribal towns are federally recognized tribes: Alabama-Quassarte, Kialegee, and Thlopthlocco.

George Scott is the mekko. Eddie L. Tullis led the Poarch Band of Creek Indians in their petitioning the United States government to recognize a government-to-government relationship.

The tribe is the only federally recognized tribe in the state of Alabama. On November 21, , the US government took On April 12, , Many Muscogee moved out of their tribal nation in Oklahoma to the nearest cities Tulsa and Oklahoma City , and to other states like California, Michigan , Missouri and Tennessee in the second half of the 20th century.

Oklahoma on July 9, The Court recognized a large part of eastern Oklahoma as part of the state's Muscogee Creek Nation reservation.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Creek Indians. For other uses, see Muskogee disambiguation.

Native American people traditionally from the southeastern US. Muscogee Creek bandolier bag , c. Further information: Yamasee War. Further information: State of Muskogee.

Further information: Five Civilized Tribes. Further information: Great Comet of Further information: New Madrid earthquake.

Mims Massacre of during the Creek Indian War [38]. Main article: Muscogee language. Retrieved February 7, Retrieved May 30, Southeastern Indians: Since the Removal Era.

Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press. Southeast Chronicles. Retrieved February 11, Tennessee Frontiers: Three Regions in Transition.

Indiana University Press. Golden Ink. Retrieved May 2, A New Order of Things. Property, Power, and the Transformation of the Creek Indians, — Cambridge University Press.

Kallman Publishing Co. The University of North Carolina Press. Retrieved August 20, Accessed May 12, Georgia Historical Quarterly.

Retrieved February 14, Old Hickory's War. Andrew Jackson and the Quest for Empire revised ed. Stackpole Books. Creeks and Southerners.

Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Retrieved May 26, South East Indian Tribes. Retrieved February 24, Landers June 1, Harvard University Press.

The University of Georgia Press. Andrew Jackson. History Book Club. You Must Submit " ". Eric Mille. Retrieved October 4, First People.

Explore Southern History. Old Kitchen Media. Archived from the original on September 14, Retrieved May 15, Retrieved August 7, Archived from the original on June 28, Retrieved August 11, The College of William and Mary.

Archived PDF from the original on August 3, Retrieved January 5, GeorgiaInfo: an Online Georgia Almanac.

Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved November 30, Retrieved March 31, Supreme Court deems half of Oklahoma a Native American reservation".

Retrieved July 11, Retrieved September 23, Muscogee Creek Confederacy. Abihka Coweta Kasihta Tukabatchee. United States.

Native American tribes in Oklahoma. The Creek achieved status based on individual merit rather than by inheriting it. Like most Indians of the Southeast, they commonly tattooed their entire bodies.

Before colonization, Creek towns were symbolically grouped into white and red categories, set apart for peace ceremonials and war ceremonials, respectively.

Each town had a plaza or community square, around which were grouped the houses—rectangular structures with four vertical walls of poles plastered over with mud to form wattle.

The roofs were pitched and covered with either bark or thatch, with smoke holes left open at the gables. If the town had a temple, it was a thatched dome-shaped edifice set upon an eight-foot mound into which stairs were cut to the temple door.

The plaza was the gathering point for such important religious observances as the Busk , or Green Corn, ceremony, an annual first-fruits and new-fire rite.

A distinctive feature of this midsummer festival was that every wrongdoing, grievance, or crime—short of murder—was forgiven.

Subsequently, the Creeks allied themselves with the English colonists in a succession of wars beginning about against the Apalachee and the Spanish.

During the 18th century a Creek Confederacy was organized in an attempt to present a united front against both Native and white enemies.

It comprised not only the dominant Creeks but also speakers of other Muskogean languages Hitchiti, Alabama-Koasati and of non-Muskogean languages Yuchi, some Natchez and Shawnee.

The Seminole of Florida and Oklahoma are a branch of the Creek Confederacy of the 18th and early 19th centuries.

Ultimately, the confederacy did not succeed, in part because the Creek towns about 50 with a total population of perhaps 20, were not able to coordinate the contribution of warriors to a common battle.

In —14, when the Creek War with the United States took place, some towns fought with the white colonizers and some the Red Sticks against them.

Upon defeat, the Creeks ceded 23,, acres of land half of Alabama and part of southern Georgia ; they were forcibly removed to Indian Territory now Oklahoma in the s.

For three-quarters of a century each tribe had a land allotment and a quasi-autonomous government modelled on that of the United States.

In preparation for Oklahoma statehood , some of this land was allotted to individual Indians; the rest was made available to white homesteaders, held in trust by the federal government, or allotted to freed slaves.

Tribal governments were effectively dissolved in but have continued to exist on a limited basis. Creek descendants numbered more than 76, in the early 21st century.

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