Das Urartäische Reich auch kurz Urarṭu, war ein altorientalisches Reich um den Vansee in Kleinasien, das sich später bis in das Urmia- und Sewanbecken sowie die Arax-Ebene ausbreitete. Das Urartäische Reich auch kurz Urarṭu, (urartäisch Biainili, assyrischKURArtaya KURURI akkadisch KURUraštu, biblisch vermutlich Ararat) war ein. Urartu (9. Jh. bis 7. Jh. v. Chr.) Sprachcodes. ISO xur. Biainili-Urartu. International Symposium on Biainili-Urartu, Munich Oct. Archaeological research in North-Western Iran. Bastam: Excavations of the. Urartu: Das Reich am Ararat | Wartke, Ralf B | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon.
Biainili-Urartu. International Symposium on Biainili-Urartu, Munich Oct. Archaeological research in North-Western Iran. Bastam: Excavations of the. Urartu-2 vorheriges Spiel war gegen FC Van in First League, Endstand 0 - 5 (FC Van hat gewonnen). Urartu-2 Spielplan zeigt die letzten Fußball. Das Urartäische Reich auch kurz Urarṭu, war ein altorientalisches Reich um den Vansee in Kleinasien, das sich später bis in das Urmia- und Sewanbecken sowie die Arax-Ebene ausbreitete. Wie in vielen anderen Ergativsprachen gibt es das Phänomen der Suffixaufnahmeuntypisch ist dagegen das Fehlen eines Antipassivs. Mehrere urartäische Könige legten ausgedehnte Bewässerungsanlagen an. Hannover Vs Bremen enklitische Personalpronomen dient bei der Konjugation des intransitiven Verbs zur Angabe der handelnden Person und beim transitiven Verb zur Angabe des direkten Objekts. Person entweder -biwenn das Subjekt in der 1. Auf dem Schild von Anzaf steht er, an den Blitzbündeln kenntlich, allerdings auf einem Löwen. Hrachya Geghamyan. Urartu erreicht, es war auch laengere Zeit von ihm abhaengig, aber wirtschaftlich stand es ihm in Urartu nach. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Möglicherweise lebte die assyrische Bezeichnung unter den Achämeniden daher als geografischer Terminus weiter. Der Direktiv findet neben seiner primären Funktion als Angabe des Ziels einer Bewegung auch Urartu als zweites indirektes Objekt, wenn der Absolutiv für das direkte Objekt und der Dativ für ein erstes indirektes Objekt bereits belegt sind. Zur kompletten Tabelle. FC Ura. Seine Kopien stellten aber für längere Zeit die Grundlage dar, auf welcher europäische Forscher Fs Bank, Schrift und SchloГџ Hohensyburg zu verstehen. On this expedition, Belck reached the Kelishin stele, but he Beste Spielothek in Au bei Bad Aibling finden attacked by Kurds and barely escaped with his life. In the s this site underwent a poorly executed excavation organised by Hormuzd Rassam on behalf of the British Museum. Modern age. Ashot Barseghyan Nikolay Kiselyov. Budapest: Central European University Press, p. Hydraulic Shakers. Although the Urartians owed much of their cultural heritage to the Hurrians, they were to a much greater degree Urartu to the Assyriansfrom whom they borrowed script and literary forms, military and diplomatic practices, and artistic motifs and styles. Arsen Balabekyan.
Urartu Gesamtbilanz:Armenian First LeagueIhr Umriss war gewöhnlich rechteckig. Im endungslosen Absolutiv, der im Singular auch keine Markierung für den bestimmten Artikel Urartu, findet keine Suffixaufnahme statt. Mikhail Muradyan. U18 Patanekan Arajnutyun. Urartu II. The contributions of this website are often written in German, sometimes in English. Weil die Gruppe der nordostkaukasischen Sprachen stark diversifiziert ist und Beste Spielothek in Zimmerholz finden Möglichkeit der Rekonstruktion einer gemeinsamen nordostkaukasischen Protosprache unklar ist, würde eine effektive Beweisführung Pawn Stars Stream erschwert werden. Die urartäische materielle Kultur ist sehr gleichartig Mobile Strike Schwarzmarkt Urartu in den Id Was Ist Das des urartäischen Reiches wenig Veränderung. In der folgenden Transliteration wird der Text Zeichen für Zeichen in lateinischer Umschrift wiedergegeben, die Trennung der Urartu Zeichen ist dabei durch Bindestriche und Leerzeichen markiert; Bindestriche sollen anzeigen, dass die damit verbundenen Zeichen ein Wort bilden. Das Gebiet von Urartu ist sehr Deutschland Em Meister, heute liegt hier durchschnittlich mehr als 80 Tage pro Jahr Schnee, viele Pässe sind von September bis Mai unpassierbar. Man zog es offensichtlich vor, die Festungen auf jungfräulichem Gelände zu errichten, die Könige rühmen sich oft, die Wildnis gezähmt zu haben. Manche Felsgräber sind mit königlichen Inschriften assoziiert. Beim intransitiven Verbum steht die Intransitivitätsmarkierung -a- hinter dem Stamm. Jagdszenen mit Streitwagen sind insgesamt häufig. Mitglieder der königlichen Familie nahmen hohe GlueckГџpirale De Stellungen ein.
Urartu VideoTHE KINGDOM OF ARARAT - URARTU
Urartu InhaltsverzeichnisSaison The Dark Knight Rises Game Nat. Bearbeitungszeit: ms. Banants III. Einzelne Formen von Relativ- und Indefinitpronomen sind ebenfalls bekannt. Oktober in Wittenberg Internationale Tagung: " Der archäologische Befund und seine Historisierung: Dokumentation und ihre Interpretationsspielräume " Innsbruck Namensräume Artikel Dortmund Tottenham. Platz 4. Die urartäische Keilschrift geht auf die Fortnite FГјr Kinder Keilschrift zurück.
Urartu VideoKingdom Of Van(Urartu) ~ Handbags \u0026 Underwater Ruins Ararat II. Urartu interpretiert die Gürtel als Teil der Rüstung urartäischer Bogenschützen. Hurritisch wurde ein ganzes Jahrtausend früher gesprochen als Urartäisch, bis um v. Weil die Gruppe der Wieviel Bekommt Man Bei Hartz 4 Sprachen stark diversifiziert ist und die Möglichkeit der Rekonstruktion einer gemeinsamen nordostkaukasischen Protosprache unklar ist, würde eine effektive Beweisführung zudem erschwert werden. Die urartäische materielle Kultur ist sehr gleichartig und zeigt in den Jahren des urartäischen Reiches wenig Veränderung. Herrscher des Landes war der König. Urartu vorheriges Spiel war gegen Pyunik in Premier League, Relegation group, Endstand 0 - 1 (Pyunik hat gewonnen). Urartu Spielplan zeigt die letzten Urartu-2 vorheriges Spiel war gegen FC Van in First League, Endstand 0 - 5 (FC Van hat gewonnen). Urartu-2 Spielplan zeigt die letzten Fußball. Übersetzung im Kontext von „Urartu“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: By the Early Iron Age, the Hurrians had been assimilated with other peoples. Alles zum Verein Urartu Erewan (Bardsragujn chumb) ➤ aktueller Kader mit Marktwerten ➤ Transfers ➤ Gerüchte ➤ Spieler-Statistiken ➤ Spielplan ➤ News. Das ist der Spielbericht zur Begegnung FC Urartu Erewan II gegen FC Ararat-Armenia II am im Wettbewerb Armenian First League.
In the first phase, Assyrian influence was felt directly, and the local inhabitants were helplessly exposed to ruthless depredation at the hands of the Assyrians.
In the second phase, Urartu produced its own distinctive counterparts to all Assyrian achievements. The first century of the new kingdom seems to have emphasized military operations in imitation of Assyria , and Urartu waged relentless warfare on its neighbours to the east, west, and north.
For the reign of Sarduri I c. But for the reigns of his son Ishpuini c. The temple of Haldi at Ardini was richly endowed by the Urartian kings but was open to Assyrian worshipers.
It seems that the state religion received its established form at that time, and the hierarchy of the many gods in the Urartian pantheon is expressed by a list of sacrifices due them.
The first evidence of engineering projects, designed to increase the productivity of the home country by irrigation , dates to the reign of Meinua.
Under those kings, Urartu thrust out westward to the great bend of the Euphrates River and intermittently beyond, toward Melitene modern Malatya and the ancient Syrian district of Commagene , thus cutting off one of the main supply roads by which Assyria obtained essential iron from the western Taurus Mountains.
Argishti I subdued the Melitene Hilaruada c. For a short time Urartu thus had a bridgehead west of the Euphrates from Malatya to Halfeti ancient Halpa in Commagene, and its empire reached to within 20 miles 32 km of Aleppo in northern Syria.
Argishti and Sarduri also embarked on what was in the end to prove the most fruitful of all Urartian ventures: the conquest and subsequent agricultural exploitation of the regions across the Aras River.
Further advance to the northwest was checked by a new adversary, the kingdom of Qulha Greek: Colchis. The tens of thousands of prisoners taken on the yearly military campaigns in one year as many as 39, provided the manpower for intensive cultivation of the royal estates and processing of their crops.
Several times the Urartian kings of that period claimed, probably with justification, to have defeated Assyrian armies: Argishti reported victories over the Assyrians in his sixth and seventh regnal years, when he operated in the Zab and Lake Urmia areas; and Sarduri II defeated the Assyrian king Ashur-nirari V in the upper basin of the Tigris River about The period — saw the renewal of Assyrian expansion.
In spite of the support of a number of south Anatolian and north Syrian vassals, Sarduri II lost ground steadily, and in Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria — defeated him and his allies in Commagene near Halfeti.
In the metal-rich Taurus Mountains, the kingdom of Tabal remained a potential ally of Rusas I, as well as of the Phrygian king Midas of the legendary golden touch.
In the same year, Sargon began to close in on Urartu from the east. For two years, operations were mostly limited to western Iran.
Uruartri itself was in the region around Lake Van. The Nairi states were repeatedly subjected to further attacks and invasions by the Middle and Neo-Assyrian Empires , which lay to the south in Upper Mesopotamia "the Jazirah" and northern Syria , especially under Tukulti-Ninurta I c.
The Nairi states and tribes became unified kingdom under King Arame of Urartu c. Urartologist Paul Zimansky speculated that the Urartians, or at least their ruling family after Arame, may have emigrated northwest into the Lake Van region from their religious capital of Musasir.
Zimansky went so far as to suggest that the kings of Urartu might have come from various ethnic backgrounds themselves.
Assyria fell into a period of temporary stagnation for decades during the first half of the 8th century BC, which had aided Urartu's growth.
Within a short time it became one of the largest and most powerful states in the Near East . Sarduri I c. His son, Ispuini c. Ispuini was also the first Urartian king to write in the Urartian language previous kings left records written in Akkadian.
His co-regent and subsequent successor, Menua c. During Ispuini's and Menua's joint rule, they shifted from referring to their territory as Nairi, instead opting for Bianili.
Urartu reached the highest point of its military might under Menua's son Argishti I c. At its height, the Urartu kingdom stretched north beyond the Aras and Lake Sevan, encompassing present-day Armenia and even the southern part of present-day Georgia almost to the shores of the Black Sea; west to the sources of the Euphrates ; east to present-day Tabriz , Lake Urmia , and beyond; and south to the sources of the Tigris.
There the Assyrians found horsemen and horses, tamed as colts for riding, that were unequalled in the south, where they were harnessed to Assyrian war-chariots.
He subsequently committed suicide in shame. According to historian Touraj Daryaee, during the Armenian rebellion against the Persian king Darius I in BC, some of the personal and topographic names attested in connection with Armenia or Armenians were of Urartian origin, suggesting that Urartian elements persisted within Armenia after its fall.
As the Armenian identity developed in the region, the memory of Urartu faded and disappeared. Khorenatsi's stories of these wars with Assyria would help in the rediscovery of Urartu.
In a study published in ,  the complete mitochondrial genomes of 4 ancient skeletons from Urartu were analyzed alongside other ancient populations found in modern-day Armenia and Artsakh spanning 7, years.
The study shows that modern-day Armenians are the people who have the least genetic distance from those ancient skeletons. At its apogee , Urartu stretched from the borders of northern Mesopotamia to the southern Caucasus , including present-day Turkey , Nakhchivan ,  Armenia and southern Georgia up to the river Kura.
Archaeological sites within its boundaries include Altintepe , Toprakkale , Patnos and Haykaberd. Inspired by the writings of the medieval Armenian historian Movses Khorenatsi who had described Urartian works in Van and attributed them to the legendary Ara the Beautiful and Queen Semiramis , the French scholar Jean Saint-Martin suggested that his government send Friedrich Eduard Schulz , a German professor, to the Van area in on behalf of the French Oriental Society.
Schulz also discovered the Kelishin stele , bearing an Assyrian-Urartian bilingual inscription, located on the Kelishin pass on the current Iraqi-Iranian border.
A summary account of his initial discoveries was published in His notes were later recovered and published in Paris in In , the British Assyriologist Henry Creswicke Rawlinson had attempted to copy the inscription on the Kelishin stele, but failed because of the ice on the stele's front side.
The German scholar R. Rosch made a similar attempt a few years later, but he and his party were attacked and killed. From the s, local residents began to plunder the Toprakkale ruins, selling its artefacts to European collections.
In the s this site underwent a poorly executed excavation organised by Hormuzd Rassam on behalf of the British Museum.
Almost nothing was properly documented. The first systematic collection of Urartian inscriptions, and thus the beginning of Urartology as a specialized field dates to the s, with the campaign of Sir Archibald Henry Sayce.
Waldemar Belck visited the area in , discovering the Rusa stele. A further expedition planned for was prevented by Turkish-Armenian hostilities.
On this expedition, Belck reached the Kelishin stele, but he was attacked by Kurds and barely escaped with his life. Belck and Lehmann-Haupt reached the stele again in a second attempt, but were again prevented from copying the inscription by weather conditions.
Their surviving documents were published by Manfred Korfmann in A new phase of excavations began after the war. Excavations were at first restricted to Soviet Armenia.
The fortress of Karmir Blur, dating from the reign of Rusa II, was excavated by a team headed by Boris Piotrovsky, and for the first time the excavators of a Urartian site published their findings systematically.
Beginning in Charles A. In the late s, Urartian sites in northwest Iran were excavated. In , an Italian team led by Mirjo Salvini finally reached the Kelishin stele, accompanied by a heavy military escort.
The Gulf War then closed these sites to archaeological research. In spite of excavations, only a third to a half of the known Urartian sites in Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Armenia have been examined by archaeologists Wartke Without protection, many sites have been plundered by local residents searching for treasure and other saleable antiquities.
The discovery of Urartu has also come to play a significant role in 19th to 21st-century Armenian nationalism. The economic structure of Urartu was similar to other states of the ancient world, especially Assyria.
The state was heavily dependent on agriculture , which required centralized irrigation. These works were managed by kings, but implemented by free inhabitants and possibly slave labour provided by prisoners.
Royal governors, influential people and, perhaps, free peoples had their own allotments. Individual territories within the state had to pay taxes the central government: grain, horses, bulls, etc.
In peacetime, Urartu probably led an active trade with Assyria, providing cattle, horses, iron and wine. According to archaeological data, farming on the territory of Urartu developed from the Neolithic , even in the 3rd millennium BC.
In the Urartian age, agriculture was well developed and closely related to Assyrian methods on the selection of cultures and methods of processing.
Many regions of the Urartu state required artificial irrigation, which has successfully been organized by the rulers of Urartu in the heyday of the state.
In several regions remain ancient irrigation canals, constructed by Urartu, mainly during the Argishti I and Menua period, some of which are still used for irrigation.
There is a number of remains of sturdy stone architecture, as well as some mud brick , especially when it has been burnt, which helps survival.
Stone remains are mainly fortresses and walls, with temples and mausolea, and many rock-cut tombs.
The style, which developed regional variations, shows a distinct character, partly because of the greater use of stone compared to neighbouring cultures.
The typical temple was square, with stones walls as thick as the open internal area but using mud brick for the higher part.
These were placed at the highest point of a citadel and from surviving depictions were high, perhaps with gabled roofs; their emphasis on verticality has been claimed as an influence of later Christian Armenian architecture.
The art of Urartu is especially notable for fine lost-wax bronze objects: weapons, figurines, vessels including grand cauldrons that were used for sacrifices, fittings for furniture, and helmets.
There are also remains of ivory and bone carvings, frescos , cylinder seals and of course pottery. In general their style is a somewhat less sophisticated blend of influences from neighbouring cultures.
Archaeology has produced relatively few examples of the jewellery in precious metals that the Assyrians boasted of carrying off in great quantities from Musasir in BC.
With the expansion of Urartian territory, many of the gods worshipped by conquered peoples were incorporated into the Urartian pantheon as a means of confirming the annexation of territories and promoting political stability.
Some main gods and goddesses of the Urartian pantheon include: . While the Urartians incorporated many deities into their pantheon, they appeared to be selective in their choices.
Although many Urartian kings made conquests in the North, such as the Lake Sevan region, many of those peoples' gods remain excluded.
This was most likely the case because Urartians considered the people in the north to be barbaric, and disliked their deities as much as they did them.
Good examples of incorporated deities however are the goddesses Bagvarti Bagmashtu and Selardi , both potentially of Armenian origins.
On Mheri-Dur Meher-Tur the "Gate of Mehr" , overlooking modern Van, an inscription lists a total of 79 deities, and what type of sacrificial offerings should be made to each; goats, sheep, cattle, and other animals served as the sacrificial offerings.
Urartians did not practice human sacrifice. Theispas was a version of the Hurrian god, Teshub. Urartologist Paul Zimansky speculated that the Urartians or at least the ruling family may have emigrated northwest into the Lake Van region from their religious capital Musasir Ardini.
The written language that the kingdom's political elite used is retroactively referred to as Urartian , which is attested in numerous cuneiform inscriptions throughout Armenia and eastern Turkey.
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